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1 Samuel 14:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Now it fell upon a day, that Jonathan the son of Saul said unto the young man that bare his armor, Come, and let us go over to the Philistines' garrison, that is on yonder side. But he told not his father.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Now it came to pass upon a day, that Jonathan the son of Saul said unto the young man that bare his armour, Come, and let us go over to the Philistines' garrison, that [is] on the other side. But he told not his father.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Now the day came that Jonathan, the son of Saul, said to the young man who was carrying his armor, “Come and let us cross over to the Philistines’ garrison that is on the other side.” But he did not tell his father.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Now it came to pass upon a day, that Jonathan, the son of Saul, said to the young man that bore his armor, Come, and let us go over to the garrison of the Philistines, that [is] on the other side. But he told not his father.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— Now it came to pass one day that Jonathan the son of Saul said to the young man that bore his armour, Come and let us go over to the Philistines' garrison which is on the other side. But he did not tell his father.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And it came about, on a certain day, that Jonathan son of Saul said unto the young man bearing his armour: Come! and let us pass over unto the garrison of the Philistines, that is on the other side, yonder! but, to his father, he told it not.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And the day cometh that Jonathan son of Saul saith unto the young man bearing his weapons, 'Come, and we pass over unto the station of the Philistines, which [is] on the other side of this;' and to his father he hath not declared [it].
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Now it came to pass one day that Jonathan, the son of Saul, said to the young man that bore his armour: Come, and let us go over to the garrison of the Philistines, which is on the other side of yonder place. But he told not this to his father.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Now it came to passe vpon a day, that Ionathan the sonne of Saul said vnto the yong man that bare his armour, Come, and let vs goe ouer to the Philistines garison, that [is] on the [other] side: but hee told not his father.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And when a certain day arrived, Jonathan the son of Saul said to the young man that bore his armour, Come, and let us go over to Messab of the Philistines that is on the other side yonder; but he told not his father.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Now it came to pass upon a day, that Yehonathan the son of Shaul said unto the young man that bare his armour, Come, and let us go over to the Pelishtim's garrison, that [is] on the other side. But he told not his father.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Now it came to pass x1961
(1961) Complement
הָיָה
hayah
{haw-yaw'}
A primitive root (compare H1933); to exist, that is, be or become, come to pass (always emphatic, and not a mere copula or auxiliary).
upon a day, 3117
{3117} Prime
יוֹם
yowm
{yome}
From an unused root meaning to be hot; a day (as the warm hours), whether literally (from sunrise to sunset, or from one sunset to the next), or figuratively (a space of time defined by an associated term), (often used adverbially).
that Yhnn יְהוֹנָתָן y3129
[3129] Standard
יוֹנָתָן
Yownathan
{yo-naw-thawn'}
A form of H3083; Jonathan, the name of ten Israelites.
x3083
(3083) Complement
יְהוֹנָתָן
Y@hownathan
{yeh-ho-naw-thawn'}
From H3068 and H5414; Jehovah-given; Jehonathan, the name of four Israelites.
the son 1121
{1121} Prime
בֵּן
ben
{bane}
From H1129; a son (as a builder of the family name), in the widest sense (of literal and figurative relationship, including grandson, subject, nation, quality or condition, etc., (like H0001, H0251, etc.).
of l שָׁאוּל 7586
{7586} Prime
שָׁאוּל
Sha'uwl
{shaw-ool'}
Passive participle of H7592; asked; Shaul, the name of an Edomite and two Israelites.
said 559
{0559} Prime
אָמַר
'amar
{aw-mar'}
A primitive root; to say (used with great latitude).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
unto x413
(0413) Complement
אֵל
'el
{ale}
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
the young man 5288
{5288} Prime
נַעַר
na`ar
{nah'-ar}
From H5287; (concretely) a boy (as active), from the age of infancy to adolescence; by implication a servant; also (by interchange of sex), a girl (of similar latitude in age).
that bare 5375
{5375} Prime
נָשָׂא
nasa'
{naw-saw'}
A primitive root; to lift, in a great variety of applications, literally and figuratively, absolutely and relatively.
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
his armour, 3627
{3627} Prime
כְּלִי
k@liy
{kel-ee'}
From H3615; something prepared, that is, any apparatus (as an implement, utensil, dress, vessel or weapon).
Come, y3212
[3212] Standard
יָלַך
yalak
{yaw-lak'}
A primitive root (compare H1980); to walk (literally or figuratively); causatively to carry (in various senses).
z8798
<8798> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperative (See H8810)
Count - 2847
x1980
(1980) Complement
הָלַךְ
halak
{haw-lak'}
Akin to H3212; a primitive root; to walk (in a great variety of applications, literally and figuratively).
and let us go over 5674
{5674} Prime
עָבַר
`abar
{aw-bar'}
A primitive root; to cross over; used very widely of any transition (literally or figuratively; transitively, intransitively, intensively or causatively); specifically to cover (in copulation).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
to x413
(0413) Complement
אֵל
'el
{ale}
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
the Plitm's פְּלִשׁתִּים 6430
{6430} Prime
פְּלִשְׁתִּי
P@lishtiy
{pel-ish-tee'}
Patrial from H6429; a Pelishtite or inhabitant of Pelesheth.
garrison, 4673
{4673} Prime
מַצָּב
matstsab
{mats-tsawb'}
From H5324; a fixed spot; figuratively an office, a military post.
that x834
(0834) Complement
אֲשֶׁר
'asher
{ash-er'}
A primitive relative pronoun (of every gender and number); who, which, what, that; also (as adverb and conjunction) when, where, how, because, in order that, etc.
[is] on the other side. 5676
{5676} Prime
עֵבֶר
`eber
{ay'-ber}
From H5674; properly a region across; but used only adverbially (with or without a preposition) on the opposite side (especially of the Jordan; usually meaning the east).
1975
{1975} Prime
הַלָּז
hallaz
{hal-lawz'}
From H1976; this or that.
x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
But he told 5046
{5046} Prime
נָגַד
nagad
{naw-gad'}
A primitive root; properly to front, that is, stand boldly out opposite; by implication (causatively), to manifest; figuratively to announce (always by word of mouth to one present); specifically to expose, predict, explain, praise.
z8689
<8689> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 2675
not x3808
(3808) Complement
לֹא
lo'
{lo}
lo; a primitive particle; not (the simple or abstract negation); by implication no; often used with other particles.
his father. 1
{0001} Prime
אָב
'ab
{awb}
A primitive word; father in a literal and immediate, or figurative and remote application.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

1 Samuel 14:1

_ _ 1 Samuel 14:1-14. Jonathan miraculously smites the Philistines’ garrison.

_ _ the Philistines’ garrison — “the standing camp” (1 Samuel 13:23, Margin) “in the passage of Michmash” (1 Samuel 13:16), now Wady Es-Suweinit. “It begins in the neighborhood of Betin (Beth-el) and El-Bireh (Beetroth), and as it breaks through the ridge below these places, its sides form precipitous walls. On the right, about a quarter of an acre below, it again breaks off, and passes between high perpendicular precipices” [Robinson].

Matthew Henry's Commentary

1 Samuel 14:1-15

_ _ We must here take notice,

_ _ I. Of the goodness of God in restraining the Philistines, who had a vast army of valiant men in the field, from falling upon that little handful of timorous trembling people that Saul had with him, whom they would easily have swallowed up at once. It is an invisible power that sets bounds to the malice of the church's enemies, and suffers them not to do that which we should think there is nothing to hinder them from.

_ _ II. Of the weakness of Saul, who seems here to have been quite at a loss, and unable to help himself. 1. He pitched his tent under a tree, and had but 600 men with him, 1 Samuel 14:2. Where were now the 3000 men he had chosen, and put such a confidence in? 1 Samuel 13:2. Those whom he trusted too much to failed him when he most needed them. He durst not stay in Gibeah, but got into some obscure place, in the uttermost part of the city, under a pomegranate-tree, under Rimmon (so the word is), Ha-Rimmon, that Rimmon near Gibeah, in the caves of which those 600 Benjamites that escaped his themselves, Judges 20:47. Some think that there Saul took shelter, so mean and abject was his spirit, now that he had fallen under God's displeasure, every hour expecting the Philistines upon him, and thereby the accomplishment of Samuel's threatening, 1 Samuel 13:14. Those can never think themselves safe that see themselves cast out of God's protection. 2. Now he sent for a priest, and the ark, a priest from Shiloh, and the ark from Kirjath-jearim, 1 Samuel 14:3, 1 Samuel 14:18. Saul had once offended by offering sacrifice himself, 1 Samuel 13:9. Now he resolves never to fall into that error again, and therefore sends for a priest, and hopes to compromise the matter with God Almighty by a particular reformation, as many do whose hearts are unhumbled and unchanged. Samuel, the Lord's prophet, had forsaken him, but he thinks he can make up that loss by commanding Ahiah, the Lord's priest, to attend him, and he will not make him stay for him nor reprove him, as Samuel had done, but will do just as he bids him, 1 Samuel 14:18, 1 Samuel 14:19. Many love to have such ministers as will be what they would have them to be, and prophesy smooth things to them; and their caressing them because they are priests, they hope, will atone for their enmity to those ministers that deal faithfully and plainly with them. He will also have the ark brought, perhaps to upbraid Samuel, who in the days of his government, for aught that appears, had not made any public use of it; or in hopes that this would make up the deficiency of his forces; one would have supposed that they would never bring the ark into the camp again, since, the last time, it not only did not save them, but did itself fall into the Philistines' hands. But it is common for those that have lost the substance of religion to be most fond of the shadows of it, as here is a deserted prince courting a deserted priest.

_ _ III. Of the bravery and piety of Jonathan, the son of Saul, who was much fitter than the father to wear the crown. “A sweet imp (says bishop Hall) out of a crab-stock.”

_ _ 1. He resolved to go incognitounknown to any one, into the camp of the Philistines; he did not acquaint his father with his design, for he knew he would forbid him; nor the people, for he knew they would all discourage him, and, because he resolved not to heed their objections, he resolved not to hear them, nor ask their advice, 1 Samuel 14:1, 1 Samuel 14:3. Nor had he so great an opinion of the priest as to consult him, but, being conscious of a divine impulse putting him upon it, he threw himself into the mouth of danger, in hope of doing service to his country. The way of access to the enemies' camp is described (1 Samuel 14:4, 1 Samuel 14:5) as being peculiarly difficult, and their natural entrenchments impregnable, yet this does not discourage him; the strength and sharpness of the rocks do but harden and whet his resolutions. Great and generous souls are animated by opposition and take a pleasure in breaking through it.

_ _ 2. He encouraged his armour-bearer, a young man that attended him, to go along with him in the daring enterprise, (1 Samuel 14:6): “Come, and let us put our lives in our hands, and go over to the enemies' garrison, and try what we can do to put them into confusion.” See whence he draws his encouragements. (1.) “They are uncircumcised, and have not the seal of the covenant in their flesh, as we have. Fear not, we shall do well enough with them, for they are not under the protection of God's covenant as we are, cannot call him theirs as we can, by the sign of circumcision.” If such as are enemies to us are also strangers to God, we need not fear them. (2.) “God is able to make us two victorious over their unnumbered regiments. There is no restraint in the Lord, no limitation to the holy One of Israel, but it is all one to him to save by many or by few.” This is a true easily granted in general, that it is all alike to Omnipotence what the instruments are by which it works; and yet it is not so easy to apply it to a particular case; when we are but few and feeble then to believe that God can not only save us, but save by us, this is an instance of faith, which, wherever it is, shall obtain a good report. Let this strengthen the weak and encourage the timid: let it be pleaded with God for the enforcing of our petitions and with ourselves for the silencing of our fears: It is nothing with God to help, whether with many or with those that have no power, 2 Chronicles 14:11. (3.) “Who knows but he that can use us for his glory will do it? It may be the Lord will work for us, work with us, work a sign or miracle for us.” So the Chaldee. We may encourage ourselves with hope that God will appear for us, though we have not ground on which to build an assurance. An active faith will venture far in God's cause upon an it may be. Jonathan's armour-bearer, or esquire, as if he had learned to carry, not his arms only, but his heart, promised to stand by him and to follow him withersoever he went, 1 Samuel 14:7. We have reason to think that Jonathan felt a divine impulse and impression putting him upon this bold adventure, in which he was encouraged by his servant's concurrence, otherwise the danger was so great which he ran upon that he would have tempted God rather than trusted him. And perhaps he had an actual regard to that word of Joshua (Joshua 23:10), One man of you shall chase a thousand, borrowed from Moses, Deuteronomy 32:30.

_ _ 3. How bold soever his resolution was, he resolved to follow Providence in the execution of it, which, he believed, would guide him with its eye (Psalms 32:8), and which therefore he would carefully attend and take hints of direction from. See how he put himself upon Providence, and resolved to be determined by it. “Come” (says he to his confidant), “we will discover ourselves to the enemy, as those that are not afraid to look them in the face (1 Samuel 14:8), and then, if they be so cautious as to bid us stand, we will advance no further, taking it for an intimation of Providence that God would have us act defensively, and we will prepare as well as we can to give them a warm reception (1 Samuel 14:9); but if they be so presumptuous as to challenge us, and the first sentinel we meet with bid us march on, we will push forward, and make as brisk an onset, assuredly gathering thence that it is the will of God we should act offensively, and then not doubting but he will stand by us,1 Samuel 14:10. And upon this issue he puts it, firmly believing, as we all should, (1.) That God has the governing of the hearts and tongues of all men, even of those that know him not, nor have any regard to him, and serves his own purposes by them, though they mean not so, neither do their hearts think so. Jonathan knew God could discover his mind to him if he pleased, and would do it, since he depended upon him, as surely by the mouth of a Philistine as by the mouth of a priest. (2.) That God will, some way or other, direct the steps of those that acknowledge him in all their ways, and seek unto him for direction, with full purpose of heart to follow it. Sometimes we find most comfort in that which is least our own doing, and into which we have been led by the unexpected, but well observed, turns of Providence.

_ _ 4. Providence gave him the sign he expected, and he answered the signal. He and his armour-bearer did not surprise the Philistines when they were asleep, but discovered themselves to them by day-light, 1 Samuel 14:11. The guards of the Philistines, (1.) Disdained them, upbraided them with the cowardice of many of their people, and looked upon them to be of the regiment of sneakers: Behold, the Hebrews come forth out of their holes. If some of Christ's soldiers play the coward, others that play the man may perhaps be upbraided with it. (2.) They defied them (1 Samuel 14:12): Come, and we will show you a thing, as if they came like children to gaze about them; but meaning, as Goliath (1 Samuel 17:44), that they would give them as meat to the fowls of the air. They bantered them, not doubting but to make a prey of them. This greatly emboldened Jonathan. With it he encouraged his servant; he had spoken with uncertainty (1 Samuel 14:6): It may be the Lord will work for us; but now he speaks with assurance (1 Samuel 14:12): The Lord has delivered them, not into our hands (he sought not his own glory), but into the hand of Israel, for he aimed at nothing but the advantage of the public. His faith being thus strengthened, no difficulty can stand before him; he climbs up the rock upon all four (1 Samuel 14:13), though he has nothing to cover him, nor any but his own servant to second him, nor any human probability of any thing but death before him.

_ _ 5. The wonderful success of this daring enterprise. The Philistines, instead of falling upon Jonathan, to slay him, or take him prisoner, fell before him (1 Samuel 14:13) unaccountably, upon the first blows he gave. They fell, that is, (1.) They were many of them slain by him and his armour-bearer, 1 Samuel 14:14. Twenty Philistines fell presently. It was not so much the name of Jonathan that made them yield so tamely (though some think that this had become terrible to them, since he smote one of their garrisons, 1 Samuel 13:3), but it was God's right hand and his arm that got him this victory. (2.) The rest were put to flight, and fell foul upon one another (1 Samuel 14:15): There was trembling in the host. There was no visible cause for fear; they were so numerous, bold, and advantageously posted; the Israelites had fled before them; not an enemy made head against them, but one gentleman and his man; and yet they shook like an aspen-leaf. The consternation was general: they all trembled; even the spoilers, those that had been most bold and forward, shared in the common fright, the joints of their loins were loosed, and their knees smote one against another, and yet none of them could tell why or wherefore. It is called a trembling of God (so the original phrase is), signifying not only, as we render it, a very great trembling, which they could not resist nor reason themselves clear of, but that it was supernatural, and came immediately from the hand of God. He that made the heart knows how to make it tremble. To complete the confusion, even the earth quaked, and made them ready to fear that it would sink under them. Those that will not fear the eternal God, he can make afraid of a shadow. See Proverbs 21:1; Isaiah 33:14.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

[[no comment]]

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

1 Samuel 14:1

Now it came to pass upon a day, that Jonathan the son of Saul said unto the young man that bare his armour, (a) Come, and let us go over to the Philistines' garrison, that [is] on the other side. But he told not his father.

(a) By this example God declared to Israel that the victory did not consist in multitude or armour, but only because of his grace.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
am 2917, bc 1087, An, Ex, Is 404

it came to pass upon a day:
or, there was a day

Jonathan:

1 Samuel 14:39-45 For, [as] the LORD liveth, which saveth Israel, though it be in Jonathan my son, he shall surely die. But [there was] not a man among all the people [that] answered him. ... And the people said unto Saul, Shall Jonathan die, who hath wrought this great salvation in Israel? God forbid: [as] the LORD liveth, there shall not one hair of his head fall to the ground; for he hath wrought with God this day. So the people rescued Jonathan, that he died not.
1 Samuel 13:2 Saul chose him three thousand [men] of Israel; [whereof] two thousand were with Saul in Michmash and in mount Bethel, and a thousand were with Jonathan in Gibeah of Benjamin: and the rest of the people he sent every man to his tent.
1 Samuel 13:22 So it came to pass in the day of battle, that there was neither sword nor spear found in the hand of any of the people that [were] with Saul and Jonathan: but with Saul and with Jonathan his son was there found.
1 Samuel 18:1-4 And it came to pass, when he had made an end of speaking unto Saul, that the soul of Jonathan was knit with the soul of David, and Jonathan loved him as his own soul. ... And Jonathan stripped himself of the robe that [was] upon him, and gave it to David, and his garments, even to his sword, and to his bow, and to his girdle.
2 Samuel 1:4-5 And David said unto him, How went the matter? I pray thee, tell me. And he answered, That the people are fled from the battle, and many of the people also are fallen and dead; and Saul and Jonathan his son are dead also. ... And David said unto the young man that told him, How knowest thou that Saul and Jonathan his son be dead?
2 Samuel 1:25-26 How are the mighty fallen in the midst of the battle! O Jonathan, [thou wast] slain in thine high places. ... I am distressed for thee, my brother Jonathan: very pleasant hast thou been unto me: thy love to me was wonderful, passing the love of women.

he told not:

1 Samuel 25:19 And she said unto her servants, Go on before me; behold, I come after you. But she told not her husband Nabal.
Judges 6:27 Then Gideon took ten men of his servants, and did as the LORD had said unto him: and [so] it was, because he feared his father's household, and the men of the city, that he could not do [it] by day, that he did [it] by night.
Judges 14:6 And the Spirit of the LORD came mightily upon him, and he rent him as he would have rent a kid, and [he had] nothing in his hand: but he told not his father or his mother what he had done.
Micah 7:5 Trust ye not in a friend, put ye not confidence in a guide: keep the doors of thy mouth from her that lieth in thy bosom.
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Jg 6:27; 14:6. 1S 13:2, 22; 14:39; 18:1; 25:19. 2S 1:4, 25. Mi 7:5.

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