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1 Samuel 11:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Then Nahash the Ammonite came up, and encamped against Jabesh-gilead: and all the men of Jabesh said unto Nahash, Make a covenant with us, and we will serve thee.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Then Nahash the Ammonite came up, and encamped against Jabeshgilead: and all the men of Jabesh said unto Nahash, Make a covenant with us, and we will serve thee.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Now Nahash the Ammonite came up and besieged Jabesh-gilead; and all the men of Jabesh said to Nahash, “Make a covenant with us and we will serve you.”
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Then Nahash the Ammonite came up, and encamped against Jabesh-gilead: and all the men of Jabesh said to Nahash, Make a covenant with us, and we will serve thee.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And Nahash the Ammonite came up and encamped against Jabesh-Gilead. And all the men of Jabesh said to Nahash, Make a covenant with us, and we will serve thee.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Then came up Nahash the Ammonite, and encamped against Jabesh-gilead,—and all the man of Jabesh said unto Nahash, Solemnise with us a covenant, that we may serve thee.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And Nahash the Ammonite cometh up, and encampeth against Jabesh-Gilead, and all the men of Jabesh say unto Nahash, 'Make with us a covenant, and we serve thee.'
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And it came to pass about a month after this, that Naas, the Ammonite, came up, and began to fight against Jabes Galaad. And all the men of Jabes said to Naas: Make a covenant with us, and we will serve thee.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Then Nahash the Ammonite came vp, and encamped against Iabesh Gilead: and all the men of Iabesh sayde vnto Nahash, Make a couenant with vs, and we will serue thee.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And it came to pass about a month after this, that Nahash{gr.Naas} the Ammonite{gr.Ammanite} went up, and encamped against Jabesh{gr.Jabis} Gilead{gr.Galaad}: and all the men of Jabesh{gr.Jabis} said to Nahash{gr.Naas} the Ammonite{gr.Ammanite}, Make a covenant with us, and we will serve thee.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Then Nachash the Ammoni came up, and encamped against Yavesh Gilad: and all the men of Yavesh said unto Nachash, Make a covenant with us, and we will serve thee.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Then N נָחָשׁ 5176
{5176} Prime
נָחָשׁ
Nachash
{naw-khawsh'}
The same as H5175; Nachash, the name of two persons apparently non Israelites.
the `Ammn עַמּוֹנִי 5984
{5984} Prime
עַמּוֹנִי
`Ammowniy
{am-mo-nee'}
Patronymic from H5983; an Ammonite or (adjectively) Ammonitish.
came up, 5927
{5927} Prime
עָלָה
`alah
{aw-law'}
A primitive root; to ascend, intransitively (be high) or active (mount); used in a great variety of senses, primary and secondary, literally and figuratively.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
and encamped 2583
{2583} Prime
חָנָה
chanah
{khaw-naw'}
A primitive root (compare H2603); properly to incline; by implication to decline (of the slanting rays of evening); specifically to pitch a tent; generally to encamp (for abode or siege).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
against x5921
(5921) Complement
עַל
`al
{al}
Properly the same as H5920 used as a preposition (in the singular or plural, often with prefix, or as conjugation with a particle following); above, over, upon, or against (yet always in this last relation with a downward aspect) in a great variety of applications.
Yv Gil` יָבֵישׁ־גִּלעָד: 3003
{3003} Prime
יָבֵישׁ
Yabesh
{yaw-bashe'}
The same as H3002. (Also, often with the addition of H1568, that is, Jabesh of Gilad); Jabesh, the name of an Israelite and of a place in Palestine.
1568
{1568} Prime
גִּלְעָד
Gil`ad
{ghil-awd'}
Probably from H1567; Gilad, a region East of the Jordan; also the name of three Israelites.
and all x3605
(3605) Complement
כֹּל
kol
{kole}
From H3634; properly the whole; hence all, any or every (in the singular only, but often in a plural sense).
the men y582
[0582] Standard
אֱנוֹשׁ
'enowsh
{en-oshe'}
From H0605; properly a mortal (and thus differeing from the more dignified H0120); hence a man in general (singly or collectively). It is often unexpressed in the English Version, especially when used in apposition with another word.
x376
(0376) Complement
אִישׁ
'iysh
{eesh}
Contracted for H0582 (or perhaps rather from an unused root meaning to be extant); a man as an individual or a male person; often used as an adjunct to a more definite term (and in such cases frequently not expressed in translation.).
of Yv יָבֵישׁ 3003
{3003} Prime
יָבֵישׁ
Yabesh
{yaw-bashe'}
The same as H3002. (Also, often with the addition of H1568, that is, Jabesh of Gilad); Jabesh, the name of an Israelite and of a place in Palestine.
said 559
{0559} Prime
אָמַר
'amar
{aw-mar'}
A primitive root; to say (used with great latitude).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
unto x413
(0413) Complement
אֵל
'el
{ale}
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
N נָחָשׁ, 5176
{5176} Prime
נָחָשׁ
Nachash
{naw-khawsh'}
The same as H5175; Nachash, the name of two persons apparently non Israelites.
Make 3772
{3772} Prime
כָּרַת
karath
{kaw-rath'}
A primitive root; to cut (off, down or asunder); by implication to destroy or consume; specifically to covenant (that is, make an alliance or bargain, originally by cutting flesh and passing between the pieces).
z8798
<8798> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperative (See H8810)
Count - 2847
a covenant 1285
{1285} Prime
בְּרִית
b@riyth
{ber-eeth'}
From H1262 (in the sense of cutting (like H1254)); a compact (because made by passing between pieces of flesh).
with us, and we will serve 5647
{5647} Prime
עָבַד
`abad
{aw-bad'}
A primitive root; to work (in any sense); by implication to serve, till, (causatively) enslave, etc.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
thee.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

1 Samuel 11:1

_ _ 1 Samuel 11:1-4. Nahash offers them of Jabesh-gilead a reproachful condition.

_ _ Then Nahash the Ammonite came up — Nahash (“serpent”); (see Judges 8:3). The Ammonites had long claimed the right of original possession in Gilead. Though repressed by Jephthah (Judges 11:33), they now, after ninety years, renew their pretensions; and it was the report of their threatened invasion that hastened the appointment of a king (1 Samuel 12:12).

_ _ Make a covenant with us, and we will serve thee — They saw no prospect of aid from the western Israelites, who were not only remote, but scarcely able to repel the incursions of the Philistines from themselves.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

1 Samuel 11:1-4

_ _ The Ammonites were bad neighbours to those tribes of Israel that lay next them, though descendants from just Lot, and, for that reason, dealt civilly with by Israel. See Deuteronomy 2:19. Jephthah, in his time, had humbled them, but now the sin of Israel had put them into a capacity to make head again, and avenge that quarrel. The city of Jabesh-Gilead had been, some ages ago, destroyed by Israel's sword of justice, for not appearing against the wickedness of Gibeah (Judges 21:10); and now being replenished again, probably by the posterity of those that then escaped the sword, it is in danger of being destroyed by the Ammonites, as if some bad fate attended the place. Nahash, king of Ammon (1 Chronicles 19:1) laid siege to it. Now here,

_ _ I. The besieged beat a parley (1 Samuel 11:1): “Make a covenant with us, and we will surrender upon terms, and serve thee.” They had lost the virtue of Israelites, else they would not have thus lost the valour of Israelites, nor tamely yielded to serve an Ammonite, without one bold struggle for themselves. Had they not broken their covenant with God, and forsaken his service, they needed not thus to have courted a covenant with a Gentile nation, and offered themselves to serve them.

_ _ II. The besiegers offer them base and barbarous conditions; they will spare their lives, and take them to be their servants, upon condition that they shall put out their right eyes, 1 Samuel 11:2. The Gileadites were content to part with their liberty and estates for the ransom of their blood; and, had the Ammonites taken them at their word, the matter would have been so settled immediately, and the Gileadites would not have sent out for relief. But their abject concessions make the Ammonites more insolent in their demands, and they cannot be content to have them for their servants, but, 1. They must torment them, and put them to pain, exquisite pain, for so the thrusting out of an eye would do. 2. They must disable them for war, and render them incapable, though not of labour (that would have been a loss to their lords), yet of bearing arms; for in those times they fought with shields in their left hands, which covered their left eye, so that a soldier without his right eye was in effect blind. 3. They must put a reproach upon all Israel, as weak and cowardly, that would suffer the inhabitants of one of their chief cities to be thus miserably used, and not offer to rescue them.

_ _ III. The besieged desire, and obtain, seven days' time to consider of this proposal, 1 Samuel 11:3. If Nahash had not granted them this respite, we may suppose the horror of the proposal would have made them desperate, and they would rather have died with their swords in their hands than have surrendered to such merciless enemies: therefore Nahash, not imagining it possible that, in so short a time, they should have relief, and being very secure of the advantages he thought he had against them, in a bravado gave them seven days, that the reproach upon Israel, for not rescuing them, might be the greater, and his triumphs the more illustrious. But there was a providence in it, that his security might be his infatuation and ruin.

_ _ IV. Notice is sent of this to Gibeah. They said they would send messengers to all the coasts of Israel (1 Samuel 11:3), which made Nahash the more secure, for that, he thought, would be a work of time, and none would be forward to appear if they had not one common head; and perhaps Nahash had not yet heard of the new-elected king. But the messengers, either of their own accord or by order from their masters, went straight to Gibeah, and, not finding Saul within, told their news to the people, who fell a weeping upon hearing it, 1 Samuel 11:4. They would sooner lament their brethren's misery and danger than think of helping them, shed their tears for them than shed their blood. They wept, as despairing to help the men of Jabesh-Gilead, and fearing lest, if that frontier-city should be lost, the enemy would penetrate into the very bowels of their country, which now appeared in great hazard.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

1 Samuel 11:1

Then — That is, about that time; for that this happened before, and was the occasion of their desire of a king, may seem from 1 Samuel 12:12, although it is possible, that Nahash's preparation, might cause that desire, and that he did not actually come 'till their king was chosen. Will serve — The occasion of this offer was, that they saw no likelihood of relief from their brethren in Canaan.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

1 Samuel 11:1

Then Nahash the Ammonite (a) came up, and encamped against Jabeshgilead: and all the men of Jabesh said unto Nahash, Make a covenant with us, and we will serve thee.

(a) After that Saul was chosen king: for fear of whom they asked a king, as in (1 Samuel 12:12).

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
Nahash:
In the Vulgate this chapter begins thus: Et factum est quasi post mensem, "And it came to pass about a month after;" which is also the reading of the principal copies of the Septuagint; and is also found in Josephus, though it appears to be of little authority.
1 Samuel 12:12 And when ye saw that Nahash the king of the children of Ammon came against you, ye said unto me, Nay; but a king shall reign over us: when the LORD your God [was] your king.
Judges 10:7 And the anger of the LORD was hot against Israel, and he sold them into the hands of the Philistines, and into the hands of the children of Ammon.
Judges 11:8-33 And the elders of Gilead said unto Jephthah, Therefore we turn again to thee now, that thou mayest go with us, and fight against the children of Ammon, and be our head over all the inhabitants of Gilead. ... And he smote them from Aroer, even till thou come to Minnith, [even] twenty cities, and unto the plain of the vineyards, with a very great slaughter. Thus the children of Ammon were subdued before the children of Israel.

Jabeshgilead:

1 Samuel 31:11-13 And when the inhabitants of Jabeshgilead heard of that which the Philistines had done to Saul; ... And they took their bones, and buried [them] under a tree at Jabesh, and fasted seven days.
Judges 21:8 And they said, What one [is there] of the tribes of Israel that came not up to Mizpeh to the LORD? And, behold, there came none to the camp from Jabeshgilead to the assembly.
Judges 21:10-25 And the congregation sent thither twelve thousand men of the valiantest, and commanded them, saying, Go and smite the inhabitants of Jabeshgilead with the edge of the sword, with the women and the children. ... In those days [there was] no king in Israel: every man did [that which was] right in his own eyes.

Make:

Genesis 26:28 And they said, We saw certainly that the LORD was with thee: and we said, Let there be now an oath betwixt us, [even] betwixt us and thee, and let us make a covenant with thee;
Exodus 23:32 Thou shalt make no covenant with them, nor with their gods.
Deuteronomy 23:3 An Ammonite or Moabite shall not enter into the congregation of the LORD; even to their tenth generation shall they not enter into the congregation of the LORD for ever:
1 Kings 20:34 And [Benhadad] said unto him, The cities, which my father took from thy father, I will restore; and thou shalt make streets for thee in Damascus, as my father made in Samaria. Then [said Ahab], I will send thee away with this covenant. So he made a covenant with him, and sent him away.
Job 41:4 Will he make a covenant with thee? wilt thou take him for a servant for ever?
Isaiah 36:16 Hearken not to Hezekiah: for thus saith the king of Assyria, Make [an agreement] with me [by] a present, and come out to me: and eat ye every one of his vine, and every one of his fig tree, and drink ye every one the waters of his own cistern;
Ezekiel 17:13 And hath taken of the king's seed, and made a covenant with him, and hath taken an oath of him: he hath also taken the mighty of the land:
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Gn 26:28. Ex 23:32. Dt 23:3. Jg 10:7; 11:8; 21:8, 10. 1S 12:12; 31:11. 1K 20:34. Jb 41:4. Is 36:16. Ezk 17:13.

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