Parallel Bible VersionsGreek Bible Study Tools

1 Peter 1:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the elect who are sojourners of the Dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia,
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the strangers scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia,
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, To those who reside as aliens, scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, who are chosen
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the strangers scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia,
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— Peter, apostle of Jesus Christ, to [the] sojourners of [the] dispersion of Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia,
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, unto the chosen pilgrims of the dispersion, throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia and Bithynia,—
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the choice sojourners of the dispersion of Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the strangers dispersed through Pontus, Cappadocia, Asia and Bithynia, elect,
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Peter an Apostle of Iesus Christ, to the strangers scattred thorowout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia,
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— PETROS, an apostle of Jeshu Meshiha, to the chosen-ones and sojourners who are scattered in Pontos and in Galatia, and in Kapadukia, and in Asia, and in Bithunia:
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— PETER, a legate of Jesus the Messiah, to the elect and sojourners, who are dispersed in Pontus and in Galatia, and in Cappadocia, and in Asia, and in Bithynia,

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Peter, 4074
{4074} Prime
Πέτρος
Petros
{pet'-ros}
Apparently a primary word; a (piece of) rock (larger than G3037); as a name, Petrus, an apostle.
an apostle 652
{0652} Prime
ἀπόστολος
apostolos
{ap-os'-tol-os}
From G0649; a delegate; specifically an ambassador of the Gospel; officially a commissioner of Christ ('apostle'), (with miraculous powers).
of Jesus 2424
{2424} Prime
Ἰησοῦς
Iesous
{ee-ay-sooce'}
Of Hebrew origin [H3091]; Jesus (that is, Jehoshua), the name of our Lord and two (three) other Israelites.
Christ, 5547
{5547} Prime
Χριστός
Christos
{khris-tos'}
From G5548; anointed, that is, the Messiah, an epithet of Jesus.
to the strangers 3927
{3927} Prime
παρεπίδημος
parepidemos
{par-ep-id'-ay-mos}
From G3844 and the base of G1927; an alien alongside, that is, a resident foreigner.
scattered y1290
[1290] Standard
διασπορά
diaspora
{dee-as-por-ah'}
From G1289; dispersion, that is, (specifically and concretely) the (converted) Israelites resident in Gentile countries.
throughout x1290
(1290) Complement
διασπορά
diaspora
{dee-as-por-ah'}
From G1289; dispersion, that is, (specifically and concretely) the (converted) Israelites resident in Gentile countries.
Pontus, 4195
{4195} Prime
Πόντος
Pontos
{pon'-tos}
A sea; Pontus, a region of Asia Minor.
Galatia, 1053
{1053} Prime
Γαλατία
Galatia
{gal-at-ee'-ah}
Of foreign origin; Galatia, a region of Asia.
Cappadocia, 2587
{2587} Prime
Καππαδοκία
Kappadokia
{kap-pad-ok-ee'-ah}
Of foreign origin; Cappadocia, a region of Asia Minor.
Asia, 773
{0773} Prime
Ἀσία
Asia
{as-ee'-ah}
Of uncertain derivation; Asia, that is, Asia Minor, or (usually) only its western shore.
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
Bithynia, 978
{0978} Prime
Βιθυνία
Bithunia
{bee-thoo-nee'-ah}
Of uncertain derivation; Bithynia, a region of Asia.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

1 Peter 1:1

_ _ 1 Peter 1:1-25. Address to the elected of the Godhead: Thanksgiving for the living hope to which we are begotten, producing joy amidst sufferings: This salvation an object of deepest interest to prophets and to angels: Its costly price a motive to holiness and love, as we are born again of the ever-abiding Word of God.

_ _ PeterGreek form of Cephas, man of rock.

_ _ an apostle of Jesus Christ — “He who preaches otherwise than as a messenger of Christ, is not to be heard; if he preach as such, then it is all one as if thou didst hear Christ speaking in thy presence” [Luther].

_ _ to the strangers scattered — literally, “sojourners of the dispersion”; only in John 7:35 and James 1:1, in New Testament, and the Septuagint, Psalms 147:2, “the outcasts of Israel”; the designation peculiarly given to the Jews in their dispersed state throughout the world ever since the Babylonian captivity. These he, as the apostle of the circumcision, primarily addresses, but not in the limited temporal sense only; he regards their temporal condition as a shadow of their spiritual calling to be strangers and pilgrims on earth, looking for the heavenly Jerusalem as their home. So the Gentile Christians, as the spiritual Israel, are included secondarily, as having the same high calling. He (1 Peter 1:14; 1 Peter 2:10; 1 Peter 4:3) plainly refers to Christian Gentiles (compare 1 Peter 1:17; 1 Peter 2:11). Christians, if they rightly consider their calling, must never settle themselves here, but feel themselves travelers. As the Jews in their dispersion diffused through the nations the knowledge of the one God, preparatory to Christ’s first advent, so Christians, by their dispersion among the unconverted, diffuse the knowledge of Christ, preparatory to His second advent. “The children of God scattered abroad” constitute one whole in Christ, who “gathers them together in one,” now partially and in Spirit, hereafter perfectly and visibly. “Elect,” in the Greek order, comes before “strangers”; elect, in relation to heaven, strangers, in relation to the earth. The election here is that of individuals to eternal life by the sovereign grace of God, as the sequel shows. “While each is certified of his own election by the Spirit, he receives no assurance concerning others, nor are we to be too inquisitive [John 21:21, John 21:22]; Peter numbers them among the elect, as they carried the appearance of having been regenerated” [Calvin]. He calls the whole Church by the designation strictly belonging only to the better portion of them [Calvin]. The election to hearing, and that to eternal life, are distinct. Realization of our election is a strong motive to holiness. The minister invites all, yet he does not hide the truth that in none but the elect will the preaching effect eternal blessing. As the chief fruit of exhortations, and even of threatenings, redounds to “the elect”; therefore, at the outset, Peter addresses them. Steiger translates, to “the elect pilgrims who form the dispersion in Pontus.”, etc. The order of the provinces is that in which they would be viewed by one writing from the east from Babylon (1 Peter 5:13); from northeast southwards to Galatia, southeast to Cappadocia, then Asia, and back to Bithynia, west of Pontus. Contrast the order, Acts 2:9. He now was ministering to those same peoples as he preached to on Pentecost: “Parthians, Medes, Elamites, dwellers in Mesopotamia and Judea,” that is, the Jews now subject to the Parthians, whose capital was Babylon, where he labored in person; “dwellers in Cappadocia, Pontus, Asia, Phrygia, Bithynia,” the Asiatic dispersion derived from Babylon, whom he ministers to by letter.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

1 Peter 1:1-2

_ _ In this inscription we have three parts: —

_ _ I. The author of it, described, 1. By his name — Peter. His first name was Simon, and Jesus Christ gave him the surname of Peter, which signifies a rock, as a commendation of his faith, and to denote that he should be an eminent pillar in the church of God, Galatians 2:9. 2. By his office — an apostle of Jesus Christ. The word signifies one sent, a legate, a messenger, any one sent in Christ's name and about his work; but more strictly it signifies the highest office in the Christian church. 1 Corinthians 12:28, God hath set some in the church, first apostles. Their dignity and pre-eminence lay in these things: — They were immediately chosen by Christ himself, — they were first witnesses, then preachers, of the resurrection of Christ, and so of the entire gospel-dispensation, — their gifts were excellent and extraordinary, — they had a power of working miracles, not at all times, but when Christ pleased, — they were led into all truth, were endowed with the spirit of prophecy, and they had an extent of power and jurisdiction beyond all others; every apostle was a universal bishop in all churches, and over all ministers. In this humble manner Peter, (1.) Asserts his own character as an apostle. Hence learn, A man may lawfully acknowledge, and sometimes is bound to assert, the gifts and graces of God to him. To pretend to what we have not is hypocrisy; and to deny what we have is ingratitude. (2.) He mentions his apostolical function as his warrant and call to write this epistle to these people. Note, It concerns all, but especially ministers, to consider well their warrant and call from God to their work. This will justify them to others, and give them inward support and comfort under all dangers and discouragements.

_ _ II. The persons to whom this epistle was addressed, and they are described,

_ _ 1. By their external condition — Strangers dispersed throughout Pontus, Galatia, etc. They were chiefly Jews, descended (as Dr. Prideaux thinks) from those Jews who were translated from Babylon, by order of Antiochus king of Syria, about two hundred years before the coming of Christ, and placed in the cities of Asia Minor. It is very likely that our apostle had been among them, and converted them, being the apostle of the circumcision, and that he afterwards wrote this epistle to them from Babylon, where multitudes of the Jewish nation then resided. At present, their circumstances were poor and afflicted. (1.) The best of God's servants may, through the hardships of times and providences, be dispersed about, and forced to leave their native countries. Those of whom the world was not worthy have been forced to wander in mountains, in dens and caves of the earth. (2.) We ought to have a special regard to the dispersed persecuted servants of God. These were the objects of this apostle's particular care and compassion. We should proportion our regard to the excellency and to the necessity of the saints. (3.) The value of good people ought not to be estimated by their present external condition. Here was a set of excellent people, beloved of God, and yet strangers, dispersed and poor in the world; the eye of God was upon them in all their dispersions, and the apostle was tenderly careful to write to them for their direction and consolation.

_ _ 2. They are described by their spiritual condition: Elect according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, etc. These poor strangers, who were oppressed and despised in the world, were nevertheless in high esteem with the great God, and in the most honourable state that any person can be in during this life; for they were,

_ _ (1.) Elect according to the foreknowledge of God the Father. Election is either to an office: so Saul was the man whom the Lord chose to be king (1 Samuel 10:24), and our Lord says to his apostles, Have not I chosen you twelve? (John 6:70); or it is to a church-state, for the enjoyment of special privileges: thus Israel was God's elect (Deuteronomy 7:6), For thou art a holy people unto the Lord thy God; the Lord thy God hath chosen thee to be a special people unto himself above all people that are upon the face of the earth; or it is to eternal salvation: God hath from the beginning chosen you to salvation, through sanctification of the Spirit and belief of the truth. This is the election here spoken of, importing God's gracious decree or resolution to save some, and bring them, through Christ, by proper means, to eternal life. [1.] This election is said to be according to the foreknowledge of God. Foreknowledge may be taken in two ways: — First, for mere prescience, foresight, or understanding, that such a thing will be, before it comes to pass. Thus a mathematician certainly foreknows that at such a time there will be an eclipse. This sort of foreknowledge is in God, who at one commanding view sees all things that ever were, or are, or ever will be. But such a prescience is not the cause why any thing is so or so, though in the event it certainly will be so, as the mathematician who foresees an eclipse does not thereby cause that eclipse to be. Secondly, Foreknowledge sometimes signifies counsel, appointment, and approbation. Acts 2:23, Him being delivered by the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God. The death of Christ was not only foreseen, but fore-ordained, as 1 Peter 1:20. Take it thus here; so the sense is, elect according to the counsel, ordination, and free grace of God. [2.] It is added, according to the foreknowledge of God the Father. By the Father we are here to understand the first person of the blessed Trinity. There is an order among the three persons, though no superiority; they are equal in power and glory, and there is an agreed economy in their works. Thus, in the affair of man's redemption, election is by way of eminency ascribed to the Father, as reconciliation is to the Son and sanctification to the Holy Ghost, though in each of these one person is not so entirely interested as to exclude the other two. Hereby the persons of the Trinity are more clearly discovered to us, and we are taught what obligations we are under to each of them distinctly.

_ _ (2.) They were elect through sanctification of the Spirit, unto obedience, and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ. The end and last result of election is eternal life and salvation; but, before this can be accomplished, every elect person must be sanctified by the Spirit, and justified by the blood of Jesus. God's decree for man's salvation always operates through sanctification of the Spirit and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus. By sanctification here understand, not a federal sanctification only, but a real one, begun in regeneration, whereby we are renewed after the image of God and made new creatures, and carried on in the daily exercise of holiness, mortifying our sins more and more, and living to God in all the duties of a Christian life, which is here summed up in one word, obedience, comprehending all the duties of Christianity. By the Spirit some would have the apostle to mean the spirit of man, the subject sanctified. The legal or typical sanctification operated no further than the purifying of the flesh, but the Christian dispensation takes effect upon the spirit of man, and purifies that. Others, with better reason, think that by spirit is meant the Holy Ghost, the author of sanctification. He renews the mind, mortifies our sins (Romans 8:13), and produces his excellent fruits in the hearts of Christians, Galatians 5:22, Galatians 5:23. This sanctification of the Spirit implies the use of means. Sanctify them through thy truth; thy word is truth, John 17:17. Unto obedience. This word, as it is pointed in our translation, is referred to what goes before it, and denotes the end of sanctification, which is, to bring rebellious sinners to obedience again, to universal obedience, to obey the truth and gospel of Christ: You have purified your souls in obeying the truth through the Spirit, 1 Peter 1:22.

_ _ (3.) They were elected also to the sprinkling of the blood of Jesus. They were designed by God's decree to be sanctified by the Spirit, and to be purified by the merit and blood of Christ. Here is a manifest allusion to the typical sprinklings of blood under the law, which language these Jewish converts understood very well. The blood of the sacrifices must not only be shed but sprinkled, to denote that the benefits designed thereby are applied and imputed to the offerers. Thus the blood of Christ, the grand and all-sufficient sacrifice, typified by the legal sacrifices, was not only shed, but must be sprinkled and communicated to every one of these elect Christians, that through faith in his blood they may obtain remission of sin, Romans 3:25. This blood of sprinkling justifies before God (Romans 5:9), seals the covenant between God and us, of which the Lord's supper is a sign (Luke 22:20), cleanses from all sin (1 John 1:7), and admits us into heaven, Hebrews 10:19. Note, [1.] God hath elected some to eternal life, some, not all; persons, not qualification. [2.] All that are chosen to eternal life as the end are chosen to obedience as the way. [3.] Unless a person be sanctified by the Spirit, and sprinkled with the blood of Jesus, there will be no true obedience in the life. [4.] There is a consent and co-operation of all the persons of the Trinity in the affair of man's salvation, and their acts are commensurate one to another: whoever the Father elects the Spirit sanctifies unto obedience, and the Son redeems and sprinkles with his blood. [5.] The doctrine of the Trinity lies at the foundation of all revealed religion. If you deny the proper deity of the Son and Holy Spirit, you invalidate the redemption of the one and the gracious operations of the other, and by this means destroy the foundation of your own safety and comfort.

_ _ III. The salutation follows: Grace unto you, and peace be multiplied. The blessings desired for them are grace and peace. 1. Grace — the free favour of God, with all its proper effects, pardoning, healing, assisting, and saving. 2. Peace. All sorts of peace may be here intended, domestic, civil, ecclesiastical peace in the church, and spiritual peace with God, with the feeling of it in our own consciences. 3. here is the request or prayer, in relations to these blessings — that they may be multiplied, which implies that they were already possessed in some degree of these blessings, and he wishes them the continuation, the increase, and the perfection of them. Learn, (1.) Those who possess spiritual blessings in their own souls earnestly desire the communication of the same to others. The grace of God is a generous, not a selfish principle. (2.) The best blessings we can desire for ourselves, or one for another, are grace and peace, with the multiplication of them; therefore the apostles so often make this their prayer in the beginning and end of their epistles. (3.) Solid peace cannot be enjoyed where there is no true grace; first grace, then peace. Peace without grace is mere stupidity; but grace may be true where there is for a time no actual peace; as Heman was distracted with terror, and Christ was once in an agony. (4.) The increase of grace and peace, as well as the first gift of them, is from God. Where he gives true grace he will give more grace; and every good man earnestly desires the improvement and multiplication of these blessings in himself and others.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

1 Peter 1:1

To the sojourners — Upon earth, the Christians, chiefly those of Jewish extraction. Scattered — Long ago driven out of their own land. Those scattered by the persecution mentioned Acts 8:1, were scattered only through Judea and Samaria, though afterwards some of them travelled to Phenice, Cyprus, and Antioch. Through Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia — He names these five provinces in the order wherein they occurred to him, writing from the east. All these countries lie in the Lesser Asia. The Asia here distinguished from the other provinces is that which was usually called the Proconsular Asia being a Roman province.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

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Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
Peter:

Matthew 4:18 And Jesus, walking by the sea of Galilee, saw two brethren, Simon called Peter, and Andrew his brother, casting a net into the sea: for they were fishers.
Matthew 10:2 Now the names of the twelve apostles are these; The first, Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother; James [the son] of Zebedee, and John his brother;
John 1:41-42 He first findeth his own brother Simon, and saith unto him, We have found the Messias, which is, being interpreted, the Christ. ... And he brought him to Jesus. And when Jesus beheld him, he said, Thou art Simon the son of Jona: thou shalt be called Cephas, which is by interpretation, A stone.
John 21:15-17 So when they had dined, Jesus saith to Simon Peter, Simon, [son] of Jonas, lovest thou me more than these? He saith unto him, Yea, Lord; thou knowest that I love thee. He saith unto him, Feed my lambs. ... He saith unto him the third time, Simon, [son] of Jonas, lovest thou me? Peter was grieved because he said unto him the third time, Lovest thou me? And he said unto him, Lord, thou knowest all things; thou knowest that I love thee. Jesus saith unto him, Feed my sheep.

the:

1 Peter 2:11 Dearly beloved, I beseech [you] as strangers and pilgrims, abstain from fleshly lusts, which war against the soul;
Acts 2:5-11 And there were dwelling at Jerusalem Jews, devout men, out of every nation under heaven. ... Cretes and Arabians, we do hear them speak in our tongues the wonderful works of God.
Ephesians 2:12 That at that time ye were without Christ, being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants of promise, having no hope, and without God in the world:
Ephesians 2:19 Now therefore ye are no more strangers and foreigners, but fellowcitizens with the saints, and of the household of God;
Hebrews 11:13 These all died in faith, not having received the promises, but having seen them afar off, and were persuaded of [them], and embraced [them], and confessed that they were strangers and pilgrims on the earth.

scattered:

Leviticus 26:33 And I will scatter you among the heathen, and will draw out a sword after you: and your land shall be desolate, and your cities waste.
Deuteronomy 4:27 And the LORD shall scatter you among the nations, and ye shall be left few in number among the heathen, whither the LORD shall lead you.
Deuteronomy 28:64 And the LORD shall scatter thee among all people, from the one end of the earth even unto the other; and there thou shalt serve other gods, which neither thou nor thy fathers have known, [even] wood and stone.
Deuteronomy 32:26 I said, I would scatter them into corners, I would make the remembrance of them to cease from among men:
Esther 3:8 And Haman said unto king Ahasuerus, There is a certain people scattered abroad and dispersed among the people in all the provinces of thy kingdom; and their laws [are] diverse from all people; neither keep they the king's laws: therefore it [is] not for the king's profit to suffer them.
Psalms 44:11 Thou hast given us like sheep [appointed] for meat; and hast scattered us among the heathen.
Ezekiel 6:8 Yet will I leave a remnant, that ye may have [some] that shall escape the sword among the nations, when ye shall be scattered through the countries.
John 7:35 Then said the Jews among themselves, Whither will he go, that we shall not find him? will he go unto the dispersed among the Gentiles, and teach the Gentiles?
John 11:52 And not for that nation only, but that also he should gather together in one the children of God that were scattered abroad.
Acts 8:4 Therefore they that were scattered abroad went every where preaching the word.
James 1:1 James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ, to the twelve tribes which are scattered abroad, greeting.

Pontus:

Acts 2:5 And there were dwelling at Jerusalem Jews, devout men, out of every nation under heaven.
Acts 2:9-10 Parthians, and Medes, and Elamites, and the dwellers in Mesopotamia, and in Judaea, and Cappadocia, in Pontus, and Asia, ... Phrygia, and Pamphylia, in Egypt, and in the parts of Libya about Cyrene, and strangers of Rome, Jews and proselytes,
Acts 18:2 And found a certain Jew named Aquila, born in Pontus, lately come from Italy, with his wife Priscilla; (because that Claudius had commanded all Jews to depart from Rome:) and came unto them.

Galatia:

Acts 16:6 Now when they had gone throughout Phrygia and the region of Galatia, and were forbidden of the Holy Ghost to preach the word in Asia,
Acts 18:23 And after he had spent some time [there], he departed, and went over [all] the country of Galatia and Phrygia in order, strengthening all the disciples.
Galatians 1:2 And all the brethren which are with me, unto the churches of Galatia:

Cappadocia:

Acts 2:9 Parthians, and Medes, and Elamites, and the dwellers in Mesopotamia, and in Judaea, and Cappadocia, in Pontus, and Asia,

Asia:

Acts 6:9 Then there arose certain of the synagogue, which is called [the synagogue] of the Libertines, and Cyrenians, and Alexandrians, and of them of Cilicia and of Asia, disputing with Stephen.
Acts 16:6 Now when they had gone throughout Phrygia and the region of Galatia, and were forbidden of the Holy Ghost to preach the word in Asia,
Acts 19:10 And this continued by the space of two years; so that all they which dwelt in Asia heard the word of the Lord Jesus, both Jews and Greeks.
Acts 20:16-18 For Paul had determined to sail by Ephesus, because he would not spend the time in Asia: for he hasted, if it were possible for him, to be at Jerusalem the day of Pentecost. ... And when they were come to him, he said unto them, Ye know, from the first day that I came into Asia, after what manner I have been with you at all seasons,
1 Corinthians 16:19 The churches of Asia salute you. Aquila and Priscilla salute you much in the Lord, with the church that is in their house.
2 Corinthians 1:8 For we would not, brethren, have you ignorant of our trouble which came to us in Asia, that we were pressed out of measure, above strength, insomuch that we despaired even of life:
2 Timothy 1:15 This thou knowest, that all they which are in Asia be turned away from me; of whom are Phygellus and Hermogenes.
Revelation 1:11 Saying, I am Alpha and Omega, the first and the last: and, What thou seest, write in a book, and send [it] unto the seven churches which are in Asia; unto Ephesus, and unto Smyrna, and unto Pergamos, and unto Thyatira, and unto Sardis, and unto Philadelphia, and unto Laodicea.

Bithynia:

Acts 16:7 After they were come to Mysia, they assayed to go into Bithynia: but the Spirit suffered them not.
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Lv 26:33. Dt 4:27; 28:64; 32:26. Es 3:8. Ps 44:11. Ezk 6:8. Mt 4:18; 10:2. Jn 1:41; 7:35; 11:52; 21:15. Ac 2:5, 9; 6:9; 8:4; 16:6, 7; 18:2, 23; 19:10; 20:16. 1Co 16:19. 2Co 1:8. Ga 1:2. Ep 2:12, 19. 2Ti 1:15. He 11:13. Jm 1:1. 1P 2:11. Rv 1:11.

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