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1 Kings 3:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And Solomon made affinity with Pharaoh king of Egypt, and took Pharaoh's daughter, and brought her into the city of David, until he had made an end of building his own house, and the house of Jehovah, and the wall of Jerusalem round about.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And Solomon made affinity with Pharaoh king of Egypt, and took Pharaoh's daughter, and brought her into the city of David, until he had made an end of building his own house, and the house of the LORD, and the wall of Jerusalem round about.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Then Solomon formed a marriage alliance with Pharaoh king of Egypt, and took Pharaoh’s daughter and brought her to the city of David until he had finished building his own house and the house of the LORD and the wall around Jerusalem.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And Solomon made affinity with Pharaoh king of Egypt, and took Pharaoh's daughter, and brought her into the city of David, until he had made an end of building his own house, and the house of the LORD, and the wall of Jerusalem on every side.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And Solomon allied himself by marriage with Pharaoh king of Egypt, and took Pharaoh's daughter, and brought her into the city of David, until he had ended building his own house, and the house of Jehovah, and the wall of Jerusalem round about.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And Solomon contracted an alliance with Pharaoh king of Egypt,—and took the daughter of Pharaoh, and brought her into the city of David, until he had made an end of building his own house, and the house of Yahweh, and the wall of Jerusalem, round about.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And Solomon joineth in marriage with Pharaoh king of Egypt, and taketh the daughter of Pharaoh, and bringeth her in unto the city of David, till he completeth to build his own house, and the house of Jehovah, and the wall of Jerusalem round about.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And the kingdom was established in the hand of Solomon, and he made affinity with Pharao, the king of Egypt: for he took his daughter, and brought her into the city of David: until he had made an end of building his own house, and the house of the Lord, and the wall of Jerusalem round about.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And Solomon made affinitie with Pharaoh king of Egypt, and tooke Pharaohs daughter, and brought her into the citie of Dauid, vntill he had made an end of building his owne house, and the house of the LORD, and the wall of Ierusalem round about.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— [Absent from Manuscript]
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And Shelomoh made affinity with Paroh king of Mitzrayim, and took Paroh's daughter, and brought her into the city of Dawid, until he had made an end of building his own house, and the house of Yahweh, and the wall of Yerushalaim round about.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And lm שְׁלֹמֹה 8010
{8010} Prime
שְׁלֹמֹה
Sh@lomoh
{shel-o-mo'}
From H7965; peaceful; Shelomoh, David's successor.
made affinity 2859
{2859} Prime
חוֹתֵן
chathan
{khaw-than'}
A primitive root; to give (a daughter) away in marriage; hence (generally) to contract affinity by marriage.
z8691
<8691> Grammar
Stem - Hithpael (See H8819)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 533
with x854
(0854) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Probably from H0579; properly nearness (used only as a preposition or adverb), near; hence generally with, by, at, among, etc.
Par` פַּרעֹה 6547
{6547} Prime
פַּרְעֹה
Par`oh
{par-o'}
Of Egyptian derivation; Paroh, a generic title of Egyptian kings.
king 4428
{4428} Prime
מֶּלֶךְ
melek
{meh'-lek}
From H4427; a king.
of Mixrayim מִצרַיִם, 4714
{4714} Prime
מִצְרַיִם
Mitsrayim
{mits-rah'-yim}
Dual of H4693; Mitsrajim, that is, Upper and Lower Egypt.
and took 3947
{3947} Prime
לָקַח
laqach
{law-kakh'}
A primitive root; to take (in the widest variety of applications).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
x853
(0853) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
Par`'s פַּרעֹה 6547
{6547} Prime
פַּרְעֹה
Par`oh
{par-o'}
Of Egyptian derivation; Paroh, a generic title of Egyptian kings.
daughter, 1323
{1323} Prime
בַּת
bath
{bath}
From H1129 (as feminine of H1121); a daughter (used in the same wide sense as other terms of relationship, literally and figuratively).
and brought 935
{0935} Prime
בּוֹא
bow'
{bo}
A primitive root; to go or come (in a wide variety of applications).
z8686
<8686> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 4046
her into x413
(0413) Complement
אֵל
'el
{ale}
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
the city 5892
{5892} Prime
עִיר
`iyr
{eer}
From H5782 a city (a place guarded by waking or a watch) in the widest sense (even of a mere encampment or post).
of Dwi דָּוִד, 1732
{1732} Prime
דָּוִד
David
{daw-veed'}
From the same as H1730; loving; David, the youngest son of Jesse.
until x5704
(5704) Complement
עַד
`ad
{ad}
Properly the same as H5703 (used as a preposition, adverb or conjugation; especially with a preposition); as far (or long, or much) as, whether of space (even unto) or time (during, while, until) or degree (equally with).
he had made an end 3615
{3615} Prime
כָּלָה
kalah
{kaw-law'}
A primitive root; to end, whether intransitively (to cease, be finished, perish) or transitively (to complete, prepare, consume).
z8763
<8763> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 790
of building 1129
{1129} Prime
בָּנָה
banah
{baw-naw'}
A primitive root; to build (literally and figuratively).
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
x853
(0853) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
his own house, 1004
{1004} Prime
בַּיִת
bayith
{bah'-yith}
Probably from H1129 abbreviated; a house (in the greatest variation of applications, especially family, etc.).
and the house 1004
{1004} Prime
בַּיִת
bayith
{bah'-yith}
Probably from H1129 abbreviated; a house (in the greatest variation of applications, especially family, etc.).
of Yhw יָהוֶה, 3068
{3068} Prime
יְהֹוָה
Y@hovah
{yeh-ho-vaw'}
From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God.
and the wall 2346
{2346} Prime
חוֹמָה
chowmah
{kho-maw'}
Feminine active participle of an unused root apparently meaning to join; a wall of protection.
of Yrlaim יְרוּשָׁלִַם 3389
{3389} Prime
יְרוּשָׁלִַם
Y@ruwshalaim
{yer-oo-shaw-lah'-im}
A dual (in allusion to its two main hills (the true pointing, at least of the former reading, seems to be that of H3390)); probably from (the passive participle of) H3384 and H7999; founded peaceful; Jerushalaim or Jerushalem, the capital city of Palestine.
round about. 5439
{5439} Prime
סָבִיב
cabiyb
{saw-beeb'}
From H5437; (as noun) a circle, neighbor, or environs; but chiefly (as adverb, with or without preposition) around.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

1 Kings 3:1

_ _ 1 Kings 3:1. Solomon marries Pharaoh’s daughter.

_ _ Solomon made affinity with Pharaoh — This was a royal title, equivalent to “sultan,” and the personal name of this monarch is said to have been Vaphres. The formation, on equal terms, of this matrimonial alliance with the royal family of Egypt, shows the high consideration to which the Hebrew kingdom had now arisen. Rosellini has given, from the Egyptian monuments, what is supposed to be a portrait of this princess. She was received in the land of her adoption with great eclat; for the Song of Solomon and the forty-fifth Psalm are supposed to have been composed in honor of this occasion, although they may both have a higher typical reference to the introduction of the Gentiles into the church.

_ _ and brought her into the city of David — that is, Jerusalem. She was not admissible into the stronghold of Zion, the building where the ark was (Deuteronomy 23:7, Deuteronomy 23:8). She seems to have been lodged at first in his mother’s apartments (Song of Songs 3:4; Song of Songs 8:2), as a suitable residence was not yet provided for her in the new palace (1 Kings 7:8; 1 Kings 9:24; 2 Chronicles 8:11).

_ _ building ... the wall of Jerusalem round about — Although David had begun (Psalms 51:18), it was, according to Josephus, reserved for Solomon to extend and complete the fortifications of the city. It has been questioned whether this marriage was in conformity with the law (see Exodus 34:16; Deuteronomy 7:3; Ezra 10:1-10; Nehemiah 13:26). But it is nowhere censured in Scripture, as are the connections Solomon formed with other foreigners (1 Kings 11:1-3); whence it may be inferred that he had stipulated for her abandonment of idolatry, and conforming to the Jewish religion (Psalms 45:10, Psalms 45:11).

Matthew Henry's Commentary

1 Kings 3:1-4

_ _ We are here told concerning Solomon,

_ _ I. Something that was unquestionably good, for which he is to be praised and in which he is to be imitated. 1. He loved the Lord, 1 Kings 3:3. Particular notice was taken of God's love to him, 2 Samuel 12:24. He had his name from it: Jedidiahbeloved of the Lord. And here we find he returned that love, as John, the beloved disciple, was most full of love. Solomon was a wise man, a rich man; yet the brightest encomium of him is that which is the character of all the saints, even the poorest, He loved the Lord, so the Chaldee; all that love God love his worship, love to hear from him and speak to him, and so to have communion with him. 2. He walked in the statutes of David his father, that is, in the statutes that David gave him, 1 Kings 2:2, 1 Kings 2:3; 1 Chronicles 28:9, 1 Chronicles 28:10 (his dying father's charge was sacred, and as a law to him), or in God's statutes, which David his father walked in before him; he kept close to God's ordinances, carefully observed them and diligently attended them. Those that truly love God will make conscience of walking in his statutes. 3. He was very free and generous in what he did for the honour of God. When he offered sacrifice he offered like a king, in some proportion to his great wealth, a thousand burnt-offerings, 1 Kings 3:4. Where God sows plentifully he expects to reap accordingly; and those that truly love God and his worship will not grudge the expenses of their religion. We may be tempted to say, To what purpose is this waste? Might not these cattle have been given to the poor? But we must never think that wasted which is laid out in the service of God. It seems strange how so many beasts should be burnt upon one altar in one feast, though it continued seven days; but the fire on the altar is supposed to be more quick and devouring than common fire, for it represented that fierce and mighty wrath of God which fell upon the sacrifices, that the offerers might escape. Our God is a consuming fire. Bishop Patrick quotes it as a tradition of the Jews that the smoke of the sacrifices ascended directly in a straight pillar, and was not scattered, otherwise it would have choked those that attended, when so many sacrifices were offered as were here.

_ _ II. Here is something concerning which it may be doubted whether it was good or no. 1. His marrying Pharaoh's daughter, 1 Kings 3:1. We will suppose she was proselyted, otherwise the marriage would not have been lawful; yet, if so, surely it was not advisable. He that loved the Lord should, for his sake, have fixed his love upon one of the Lord's people. Unequal matches of the sons of God with the daughters of men have often been of pernicious consequence; yet some think that he did this with the advice of his friends, that she was a sincere convert (for the gods of the Egyptians are not reckoned among the strange gods which his strange wives drew him in to the worship of, 1 Kings 11:5, 1 Kings 11:6), and that the book of Canticles and the 45th Psalm were penned on this occasion, by which these nuptials were made typical of the mystical espousals of the church to Christ, especially the Gentile church. 2. His worshipping in the high places, and thereby tempting the people to do so too, 1 Kings 3:2, 1 Kings 3:3. Abraham built his altars on mountains (Genesis 12:8; Genesis 22:2), and worshipped in a grove, Genesis 21:33. Thence the custom was derived, and was proper, till the divine law confined them to one place, Deuteronomy 12:5, Deuteronomy 12:6. David kept to the ark, and did not care for the high places, but Solomon, though in other things he walked in the statutes of his father, in this came short of him. He showed thereby a great zeal for sacrificing, but to obey would have been better. This was an irregularity. Though there was as yet no house built, there was a tent pitched, to the name of the Lord, and the ark ought to have been the centre of their unity. It was so by divine institution; from it the high places separated; yet while they worshipped God only, and in other things according to the rule, he graciously overlooked their weakness, and accepted their services; and it is owned that Solomon loved the Lord, though he burnt incense in the high places, and let not men be more severe than God is.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

1 Kings 3:1

Pharaoh — As being a powerful neighbour, whose daughter doubtless was first instructed in, and proselyted to the Jewish religion. It seems, this was designed by God to be a type of Christ, calling his church to himself, and to the true religion, not only out of the Jews, but even out of the Gentile world. City of David — Into David's palace there. The wall — Which though in some sort built by David, yet Solomon is here said to build, either because he made it higher, and stronger, in which sense Nebuchadnezzar is said to have built Babylon, Daniel 4:30, or because he built another wall besides the former, for after this time Jerusalem was encompassed with more walls than one.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

1 Kings 3:1

And Solomon made affinity with Pharaoh king of Egypt, and took Pharaoh's daughter, and brought her into the (a) city of David, until he had made an end of building his own house, and the house of the LORD, and the wall of Jerusalem round about.

(a) Which was Bethlehem.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
am 2990, bc 1014, An, Ex, Is, 477

affinity:

2 Chronicles 18:1 Now Jehoshaphat had riches and honour in abundance, and joined affinity with Ahab.
Ezra 9:14 Should we again break thy commandments, and join in affinity with the people of these abominations? wouldest not thou be angry with us till thou hadst consumed [us], so that [there should be] no remnant nor escaping?

and took:

1 Kings 7:8 And his house where he dwelt [had] another court within the porch, [which] was of the like work. Solomon made also an house for Pharaoh's daughter, whom he had taken [to wife], like unto this porch.
1 Kings 9:24 But Pharaoh's daughter came up out of the city of David unto her house which [Solomon] had built for her: then did he build Millo.
1 Kings 11:1 But king Solomon loved many strange women, together with the daughter of Pharaoh, women of the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Zidonians, [and] Hittites;

the city:

2 Samuel 5:7 Nevertheless David took the strong hold of Zion: the same [is] the city of David.
1 Chronicles 11:7 And David dwelt in the castle; therefore they called it the city of David.

his own:

1 Kings 7:1-12 But Solomon was building his own house thirteen years, and he finished all his house. ... And the great court round about [was] with three rows of hewed stones, and a row of cedar beams, both for the inner court of the house of the LORD, and for the porch of the house.

the house:

1 Kings 6:1-38 And it came to pass in the four hundred and eightieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon's reign over Israel, in the month Zif, which [is] the second month, that he began to build the house of the LORD. ... And in the eleventh year, in the month Bul, which [is] the eighth month, was the house finished throughout all the parts thereof, and according to all the fashion of it. So was he seven years in building it.
1 Kings 7:13-15 And king Solomon sent and fetched Hiram out of Tyre. ... For he cast two pillars of brass, of eighteen cubits high apiece: and a line of twelve cubits did compass either of them about.
2 Chronicles 2:1-4:22 And Solomon determined to build an house for the name of the LORD, and an house for his kingdom. ... And the snuffers, and the basons, and the spoons, and the censers, [of] pure gold: and the entry of the house, the inner doors thereof for the most holy [place], and the doors of the house of the temple, [were of] gold.
Ezra 5:11 And thus they returned us answer, saying, We are the servants of the God of heaven and earth, and build the house that was builded these many years ago, which a great king of Israel builded and set up.

the wall:

1 Kings 9:15-19 And this [is] the reason of the levy which king Solomon raised; for to build the house of the LORD, and his own house, and Millo, and the wall of Jerusalem, and Hazor, and Megiddo, and Gezer. ... And all the cities of store that Solomon had, and cities for his chariots, and cities for his horsemen, and that which Solomon desired to build in Jerusalem, and in Lebanon, and in all the land of his dominion.
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2S 5:7. 1K 6:1; 7:1, 8, 13; 9:15, 24; 11:1. 1Ch 11:7. 2Ch 2:1; 18:1. Ezr 5:11; 9:14.

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