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1 Kings 1:5 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Then Adonijah the son of Haggith exalted himself, saying, I will be king: and he prepared him chariots and horsemen, and fifty men to run before him.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Then Adonijah the son of Haggith exalted himself, saying, I will be king: and he prepared him chariots and horsemen, and fifty men to run before him.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Now Adonijah the son of Haggith exalted himself, saying, “I will be king.” So he prepared for himself chariots and horsemen with fifty men to run before him.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Then Adonijah the son of Haggith exalted himself, saying, I will be king: and he prepared him chariots and horsemen, and fifty men to run before him.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And Adonijah the son of Haggith exalted himself, saying, I will be king; and he provided himself chariots and horsemen, and fifty men to run before him.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And, Adonijah son of Haggith, exalted himself, saying—I, will be king. Therefore prepared he for himself chariots and horsemen, and fifty men to run before him.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And Adonijah son of Haggith is lifting himself up, saying, 'I do reign;' and he prepareth for himself a chariot and horsemen, and fifty men running before him,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And Adonias, the son of Haggith, exalted himself, saying: I will be king. And he made himself chariots and horsemen, and fifty men to run before him.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Then Adoniiah the sonne of Haggith exalted himselfe, saying, I wil be king: And he prepared him charets and horesemen, and fiftie men to runne before him.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And Adonijah{gr.Adonias} the son of Aggith exalted himself, saying, I will be king; and he prepared for himself chariots and horses, and fifty men to run before him.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Then Adoniyyah the son of Chaggith exalted himself, saying, I will be king: and he prepared him chariots and horsemen, and fifty men to run before him.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Then niyy אֲדֹנִיָּה 138
{0138} Prime
אֲדֹנִיָּהוּ
'Adoniyah
{ad-o-nee-yaw'}
From H0113 and H3050; lord (that is, worshipper) of Jah; Adonijah, the name of three Israelites.
the son 1121
{1121} Prime
בֵּן
ben
{bane}
From H1129; a son (as a builder of the family name), in the widest sense (of literal and figurative relationship, including grandson, subject, nation, quality or condition, etc., (like H0001, H0251, etc.).
of agg חַגִּית 2294
{2294} Prime
חַגִּית
Chaggiyith
{khag-gheeth'}
Feminine of H2291; festive; Chaggith, a wife of David.
exalted y4984
[4984] Standard
מִתְנַשֵּׂא
mithnasse'
{mith-nas-say'}
From H5375; (used as abstraction) supreme exaltation.
z8693
<8693> Grammar
Stem - Hithpael (See H8819)
Mood - Participle (See H8813)
Count - 139
himself, x4984
(4984) Complement
מִתְנַשֵּׂא
mithnasse'
{mith-nas-say'}
From H5375; (used as abstraction) supreme exaltation.
saying, 559
{0559} Prime
אָמַר
'amar
{aw-mar'}
A primitive root; to say (used with great latitude).
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
I x589
(0589) Complement
אֲנִי
'aniy
{an-ee'}
Contracted from H0595; I.
will be king: 4427
{4427} Prime
מָלַךְ
malak
{maw-lak'}
A primitive root; to reign; inceptively to ascend the throne; causatively to induct into royalty; hence (by implication) to take counsel.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
and he prepared 6213
{6213} Prime
עָשָׂה
`asah
{aw-saw'}
A primitive root; to do or make, in the broadest sense and widest application.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
him chariots 7393
{7393} Prime
רֶכֶב
rekeb
{reh'-keb}
From H7392; a vehicle; by implication a team; by extension cavalry; by analogy a rider, that is, the upper millstone.
and horsemen, 6571
{6571} Prime
פָּרָשׁ
parash
{paw-rawsh'}
From H6567; a steed (as stretched out to a vehicle, not single nor for mounting (compare H5483)); also (by implication) a driver (in a chariot), that is, (collectively) cavalry.
and fifty 2572
{2572} Prime
חֲמִשִּׁים
chamishshiym
{kham-ish-sheem'}
Multiple of H2568; fifty.
men 376
{0376} Prime
אִישׁ
'iysh
{eesh}
Contracted for H0582 (or perhaps rather from an unused root meaning to be extant); a man as an individual or a male person; often used as an adjunct to a more definite term (and in such cases frequently not expressed in translation.).
to run 7323
{7323} Prime
רוּץ
ruwts
{roots}
A primitive root; to run (for whatever reason, especially to rush).
z8801
<8801> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle (See H8813)
Count - 309
before 6440
{6440} Prime
פָּנִים
paniym
{paw-neem'}
Plural (but always used as a singular) of an unused noun (פָּנֶה paneh, {paw-neh'}; from H6437); the face (as the part that turns); used in a great variety of applications (literally and figuratively); also (with prepositional prefix) as a preposition (before, etc.).
him.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

1 Kings 1:5-6

_ _ 1 Kings 1:5-31. Adonijah usurps the kingdom.

_ _ Then Adonijah the son of Haggith exalted himself — Nothing is said as to the origin or rank of Haggith, so that it is probable she was not distinguished by family descent. Adonijah, though David’s fourth son (2 Samuel 3:4; 1 Chronicles 3:2), was now the oldest alive; and his personal attractions and manners (1 Samuel 9:2) not only recommended him to the leading men about court, but made him the favorite of his father, who, though seeing him assume an equipage becoming only the heir-presumptive to the throne (2 Samuel 15:1), said nothing; and his silence was considered by many, as well as by Adonijah, to be equivalent to an expression of consent. The sinking health of the king prompted him to take a decisive step in furtherance of his ambitious designs.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

1 Kings 1:5-10

_ _ David had much affliction in his children. Amnon and Absalom had both been his grief; the one his first-born, the other his third, 2 Samuel 3:2, 2 Samuel 3:3. His second, whom he had by Abigail, we will suppose he had comfort in; his fourth was Adonijah (2 Samuel 3:4); he was one of those that were born in Hebron; we have heard nothing of him till now, and here we are told that he was a comely person, and that he was next in age, and (as it proved) next in temper to Absalom, 1 Kings 1:6. And, further, that in his father's eyes he had been a jewel, but was now a thorn.

_ _ I. His father had made a fondling of him, 1 Kings 1:6. He had not displeased him at any time. It is not said that he never displeased his father; it is probably that he had done so frequently, and his father was secretly troubled at his misconduct and lamented it before God. But his father had not displeased him, by crossing him in his humours, denying him any thing he had a mind to, or by calling him to an account as to what he had done and where he had been, or by keeping him to his book or his business, or reproving him for what he saw or heard of that he did amiss; he never said to him, Why hast thou done so? because he saw it was uneasy to him, and he could not bear it without fretting. It was the son's fault that he was displeased at reproof and took it for affront, whereby he lost the benefit of it; and it was the father's fault that, because he saw it displeased him, he did not reprove him; and now he justly smarted for indulging him. Those who honour their sons more than God, as those do who keep them not under good discipline, thereby forfeit the honour they might expect from their sons.

_ _ II. He, in return, made a fool of his father. Because he was old, and confined to his bed, he thought no notice was to be taken of him, and therefore exalted himself, and said, I will be king, 1 Kings 1:5. Children that are indulged learn to be proud and ambitious, which is the ruin of a great many young people. The way to keep them humble is to keep them under. Observe Adonijah's insolence. 1. He looked upon the days of mourning for his father to be at hand, and therefore he prepared to succeed him, though he knew that by the designation both of God and David Solomon was to be the man; for public notice had been given of it by David himself, and the succession settled, as it were by act of parliament, in pursuance of God's appointment, 1 Chronicles 22:9; 1 Chronicles 23:1. This entail Adonijah attempted by force to cut off, in contempt both of God and his father. Thus is the kingdom of Christ opposed, and there are those that say, “We will not have him to reign over us.” 2. He looked upon his father as superannuated and good for nothing, and therefore he entered immediately upon the possession of the throne. He cannot wait till his father's head be laid low, but it must now be said, Adonijah reigns (1 Kings 1:18), and, God save king Adonijah, 1 Kings 1:25. His father is not fit to govern, for he is old and past ruling, nor Solomon, for he is young, and not yet able to rule; and therefore Adonijah will take the government upon him. It argues a very base and wicked mind for children to insult over their parents because of the infirmities of their age. 3. In pursuance of this ambitious project, (1.) He got a great retinue (1 Kings 1:5), chariots and horsemen, both for state and strength, to wait on him, and to fight for him. (2.) He made great interest with no less than Joab, the general of the army, and Abiathar the high priest, 1 Kings 1:7. That he should make his court to those who by their influence in church and camp were capable of doing him great service is not strange; but we may well wonder by what arts they could be drawn to follow him and help him. They were old men, who had been faithful to David in the most difficult and troublesome of his times, men of sense and experience, who, one would think, would not easily be wheedled. They could not propose any advantage to themselves by supporting Adonijah, for they were both at the top of their preferment and stood fast in it. They could not be ignorant of the entail of the crown upon Solomon, which it was not in their power to cut off, and therefore it was their interest to oblige him. But God, in this matter, left them to themselves, perhaps to correct them for some former misconduct with a scourge of their own making. We are told (1 Kings 1:8) who those were that were of such approved fidelity to David that Adonijah had not the confidence so much as to propose his project to them — Zadok, Benaiah, and Nathan. A man that has given proofs of his resolute adherence to that which is good shall not be asked to do a bad thing. (3.) He prepared a great entertainment (1 Kings 1:9) at En-rogel, not far from Jerusalem; his guests were the king's sons, and the king's servants, whom he feasted and caressed to bring them over to his party; but Solomon was not invited, either because he despised him or because he despaired of him, 1 Kings 1:10. Such as serve their own belly, and will be in the interest of those that will feast them what side soever they are of, are an easy prey to seducers, Romans 16:18. Some think that Adonijah slew these sheep and oxen, even fat ones, for sacrifice, and that it was a religious feast he made, beginning his usurpation with a show of devotion, as Absalom under the colour of a vow (2 Samuel 15:7), which he might do the more plausibly when he had the high priest himself on his side. It is a pity that any occasion should ever be given to say, In nomine Domini incipit omne malamIn the name of the Lord begins all evil, and that all religious exercises should be made to patronise all religious practices.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

1 Kings 1:5

Then — Upon notice of the desperateness of the king's disease, and the approach of his death. Exalted — Entertained high thoughts and designs. I will — As the right of the kingdom is mine, 1 Kings 1:6, so I will now take possession of it. Prepared — As Absalom had done upon the like occasion, 2 Samuel 15:1.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

1 Kings 1:5

Then Adonijah the son of Haggith exalted himself, saying, I will be king: and he prepared him chariots and horsemen, and (d) fifty men to run before him.

(d) Read (2 Samuel 15:1).

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
Adonijah:

2 Samuel 3:4 And the fourth, Adonijah the son of Haggith; and the fifth, Shephatiah the son of Abital;
1 Chronicles 3:2 The third, Absalom the son of Maachah the daughter of Talmai king of Geshur: the fourth, Adonijah the son of Haggith:

exalted:

1 Kings 1:11 Wherefore Nathan spake unto Bathsheba the mother of Solomon, saying, Hast thou not heard that Adonijah the son of Haggith doth reign, and David our lord knoweth [it] not?
1 Kings 2:24 Now therefore, [as] the LORD liveth, which hath established me, and set me on the throne of David my father, and who hath made me an house, as he promised, Adonijah shall be put to death this day.
Exodus 9:17 As yet exaltest thou thyself against my people, that thou wilt not let them go?
Proverbs 16:18 Pride [goeth] before destruction, and an haughty spirit before a fall.
Proverbs 18:12 Before destruction the heart of man is haughty, and before honour [is] humility.
Luke 14:11 For whosoever exalteth himself shall be abased; and he that humbleth himself shall be exalted.
Luke 18:14 I tell you, this man went down to his house justified [rather] than the other: for every one that exalteth himself shall be abased; and he that humbleth himself shall be exalted.

I will:

Deuteronomy 17:15 Thou shalt in any wise set [him] king over thee, whom the LORD thy God shall choose: [one] from among thy brethren shalt thou set king over thee: thou mayest not set a stranger over thee, which [is] not thy brother.
Judges 9:2 Speak, I pray you, in the ears of all the men of Shechem, Whether [is] better for you, either that all the sons of Jerubbaal, [which are] threescore and ten persons, reign over you, or that one reign over you? remember also that I [am] your bone and your flesh.
1 Chronicles 22:5-11 And David said, Solomon my son [is] young and tender, and the house [that is] to be builded for the LORD [must be] exceeding magnifical, of fame and of glory throughout all countries: I will [therefore] now make preparation for it. So David prepared abundantly before his death. ... Now, my son, the LORD be with thee; and prosper thou, and build the house of the LORD thy God, as he hath said of thee.
1 Chronicles 28:5 And of all my sons, (for the LORD hath given me many sons,) he hath chosen Solomon my son to sit upon the throne of the kingdom of the LORD over Israel.
1 Chronicles 29:1 Furthermore David the king said unto all the congregation, Solomon my son, whom alone God hath chosen, [is yet] young and tender, and the work [is] great: for the palace [is] not for man, but for the LORD God.

be king:
Heb. reign

and he:

Deuteronomy 17:16 But he shall not multiply horses to himself, nor cause the people to return to Egypt, to the end that he should multiply horses: forasmuch as the LORD hath said unto you, Ye shall henceforth return no more that way.
2 Samuel 15:1 And it came to pass after this, that Absalom prepared him chariots and horses, and fifty men to run before him.
Isaiah 2:7 Their land also is full of silver and gold, neither [is there any] end of their treasures; their land is also full of horses, neither [is there any] end of their chariots:
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Ex 9:17. Dt 17:15, 16. Jg 9:2. 2S 3:4; 15:1. 1K 1:11; 2:24. 1Ch 3:2; 22:5; 28:5; 29:1. Pv 16:18; 18:12. Is 2:7. Lk 14:11; 18:14.

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