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1 Kings 1:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Now king David was old and stricken in years; and they covered him with clothes, but he gat no heat.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Now king David was old [and] stricken in years; and they covered him with clothes, but he gat no heat.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Now King David was old, advanced in age; and they covered him with clothes, but he could not keep warm.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Now king David was old [and] advanced in years; and they covered him with clothes, but he got no heat.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And king David was old [and] advanced in age; and they covered him with clothes, but he obtained no warmth.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Now, King David, was old, advanced in days,—and they covered him with clothes, but he gat no heat.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And king David [is] old, entering into days, and they cover him with garments, and he hath no heat,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Now king David was old, and advanced in years: and when he was covered with clothes he was not warm.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Now King Dauid was olde, [and] striken in yeeres, and they couered him with clothes, but hee gate no heate.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And king David [was] old and advanced in days, and they covered him with clothes, and he was not warmed.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Now king Dawid was old [and] stricken in years; and they covered him with clothes, but he gat no heat.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Now king 4428
{4428} Prime
From H4427; a king.
Dwi דָּוִד 1732
{1732} Prime
From the same as H1730; loving; David, the youngest son of Jesse.
was old 2204
{2204} Prime
A primitive root; to be old.
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
[and] stricken 935
{0935} Prime
A primitive root; to go or come (in a wide variety of applications).
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
in years; 3117
{3117} Prime
From an unused root meaning to be hot; a day (as the warm hours), whether literally (from sunrise to sunset, or from one sunset to the next), or figuratively (a space of time defined by an associated term), (often used adverbially).
and they covered 3680
{3680} Prime
A primitive root; properly to plump, that is, fill up hollows; by implication to cover (for clothing or secrecy).
<8762> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 2447
him with clothes, 899
{0899} Prime
From H0898; a covering, that is, clothing; also treachery or pillage.
but he gat no heat. 3179
{3179} Prime
A primitive root; Probably to be hot; figuratively to conceive.
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
(3808) Complement
lo; a primitive particle; not (the simple or abstract negation); by implication no; often used with other particles.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

1 Kings 1:1-2

_ _ 1 Kings 1:1-4. Abishag cherishes David in his extreme age.

_ _ Now king David was old — He was in the seventieth year of his age (2 Samuel 5:4, 2 Samuel 5:5). But the wear and tear of a military life, bodily fatigue, and mental care, had prematurely, if we may say it, exhausted the energies of David’s strong constitution (1 Samuel 16:12). In modern Palestine and Egypt the people, owing to the heat of the climate, sleep each in a “separate” bed. They only depart from this practice for medical reasons (Ecclesiastes 4:11). The expedient recommended by David’s physicians is the regimen still prescribed in similar cases in the East, particularly among the Arab population, not simply to give heat, but “to cherish,” as they are aware that the inhalation of young breath will give new life and vigor to the worn-out frame. The fact of the health of the young and healthier person being, as it were, stolen to support that of the more aged and sickly is well established among the medical faculty. And hence the prescription for the aged king was made in a hygienic point of view for the prolongation of his valuable life, and not merely for the comfort to be derived from the natural warmth imparted to his withered frame [Porter, Tent and Khan]. The polygamy of the age and country may account for the introduction of this practice; and it is evident that Abishag was made a concubine or secondary wife to David (see on 1 Kings 2:22).

Matthew Henry's Commentary

1 Kings 1:1-4

_ _ David, as recorded in the foregoing chapter, had, by the great mercy of God, escaped the sword of the destroying angel. But our deliverances from or through diseases and dangers are but reprieves; if the candle be not blown out, it will burn out of itself. We have David here sinking under the infirmities of old age, and brought by them to the gates of the grave. He that cometh up out of the pit shall fall into the snare; and, one way or other, we must needs die. 1. It would have troubled one to see David so infirm. He as old, and his natural heat so wasted that no clothes could keep him warm, 1 Kings 1:1. David had been a valiant active man and a man of business, and very vehement had the flame always been in his breast; and yet now his blood is chilled and stagnated, he is confined to his bed, and there can get no heat. He was now seventy years old. Many, at that age, are as lively and fit for business as ever; but David was now chastised for his former sins, especially that in the matter of Uriah, and felt from his former toils and the hardships he had gone through in his youth, which then he made nothing of, but was now the worse for. Let not the strong man glory in his strength, which may soon be weakened by sickness, or at last will be weakened by old age. Let young people remember their Creator in the days of their youth, before these evil days come. What our hand finds to do for God, and our souls, and our generation, let us do with all our might, because the night comes, the night of old age, in which no man can work; and, when our strength has gone, it will be a comfort to remember that we used it well. 2. It would have troubled one to see his physicians so weak and unskilful that they knew no other way of relieving him than by outward applications. No cordials, no spirits, but, (1.) They covered him with clothes, which, where there is any inward heat, will keep it in, and so increase it; but, where it is not, they have none to communicate, no, not royal clothing. Elihu makes it a difficulty to understand how our garments are warm upon us (Job 37:17); but, if God deny his blessing, men clothe themselves, and there is none warm (Haggai 1:6), David here was not. (2.) They foolishly prescribed nuptials to one that should rather have been preparing for his funeral (1 Kings 1:2-4); but they knew what would gratify their own corruptions, and perhaps were too willing to gratify his, under colour of consulting his health. His prophets should have been consulted as well as his physicians in an affair of this nature. However, this might be excused then, when even good men ignorantly allowed themselves to have many wives. We now have not so learned of Christ, but are taught that one man must have but one wife (Matthew 19:5), and further that it is good for a man not to touch a woman, 1 Corinthians 7:1. That Abishag was married to David before she lay with him, and was his secondary wife, appears from its being imputed as a great crime to Adonijah that he desired to marry her (1 Kings 2:22) after his father's death.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

1 Kings 1:1

Old — Being in the end of his seventieth year. No heat — Which is not strange in a person who had been exercised with so many hardships in war, and with such tormenting cares, and fears, and sorrows, for his own sins (as divers of his Psalms witness) and for the sins and miseries of his children and people. Besides, this might be from the nature of his bodily distemper.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

1 Kings 1:1

Now king David was (a) old [and] stricken in years; and they covered him with clothes, but he gat no (b) heat.

The Argument — Because the children of God should expect no continual rest and quietness in this world, the Holy Spirit sets before our eyes in this book the variety and change of things, which came to the people of Israel from the death of David, Solomon, and the rest of the kings, to the death of Ahab. Declaring that flourishing kingdoms, unless they are preserved by God's protection, (who then favours them when his word is truly set forth, virtue esteemed, vice punished, and concord maintained) fall to decay and come to nothing as appears by the dividing of the kingdom under Rehoboam and Jeroboam, who were one people before and now by the just punishment of God were made two. Judah and Benjamin were under Rehoboam, and this was called the kingdom of Judah. The other ten tribes held with Jeroboam, and this was called the kingdom of Israel. The king of Judah had his throne in Jerusalem, and the king of Israel in Samaria, after it was built by Omri Ahab's father. Because our Saviour Christ according to the flesh, comes from the stock of David, the genealogy of the kings of Judah is here described, from Solomon to Joram the son of Jehoshaphat, who reigned over Judah in Jerusalem as Ahab did over Israel in Samaria.

(a) He was about 70 years old, (2 Samuel 5:4).

(b) For his natural heat was worn away with travels.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
David was probably now about sixty-nine years of age. He was thirty years old when he began to reign, reigned forty, and died in his seventieth year; and the transactions mentioned here are supposed to have taken place about a year before his death. Sixty-nine was not an advanced age; but he had been exhausted with various fatigues, and especially family afflictions, so that he was much older in constitution than in years.
2 Samuel 5:4 David [was] thirty years old when he began to reign, [and] he reigned forty years.
1 Chronicles 23:1 So when David was old and full of days, he made Solomon his son king over Israel.
1 Chronicles 29:27-28 And the time that he reigned over Israel [was] forty years; seven years reigned he in Hebron, and thirty and three [years] reigned he in Jerusalem. ... And he died in a good old age, full of days, riches, and honour: and Solomon his son reigned in his stead.
Psalms 90:10 The days of our years [are] threescore years and ten; and if by reason of strength [they be] fourscore years, yet [is] their strength labour and sorrow; for it is soon cut off, and we fly away.

and stricken in years:
Heb. and entered into days,
Genesis 18:11 Now Abraham and Sarah [were] old [and] well stricken in age; [and] it ceased to be with Sarah after the manner of women.
Genesis 24:1 And Abraham was old, [and] well stricken in age: and the LORD had blessed Abraham in all things.
Joshua 23:1-2 And it came to pass a long time after that the LORD had given rest unto Israel from all their enemies round about, that Joshua waxed old [and] stricken in age. ... And Joshua called for all Israel, [and] for their elders, and for their heads, and for their judges, and for their officers, and said unto them, I am old [and] stricken in age:
Luke 1:7 And they had no child, because that Elisabeth was barren, and they both were [now] well stricken in years.
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Gn 18:11; 24:1. Jsh 23:1. 2S 5:4. 1Ch 23:1; 29:27. Ps 90:10. Lk 1:7.

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