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1 John 3:14 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— We know that we have passed out of death into life, because we love the brethren. He that loveth not abideth in death.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— We know that we have passed from death unto life, because we love the brethren. He that loveth not [his] brother abideth in death.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— We know that we have passed out of death into life, because we love the brethren. He who does not love abides in death.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— We know that we have passed from death to life, because we love the brethren. He that loveth not [his] brother, abideth in death.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— *We* know that we have passed from death to life, because we love the brethren. He who does not love [his] brother abides in death.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— We, know, that we have passed over out of death into life, because we love the brethren: he that loveth not, abideth in death.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— we—we have known that we have passed out of the death to the life, because we love the brethren; he who is not loving the brother doth remain in the death.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— We know that we have passed from death to life, because we love the brethren. He that loveth not abideth in death.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Wee know that wee haue passed from death vnto life, because wee loue the brethren: he that loueth not his brother, abideth in death.
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— We know that we have passed from death unto life, by this, that we love our brethren. He who loveth not his brother, in death continueth.
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— We know that we have turned from death unto life, by this, that we love the brethren. He that loveth not his brother, remaineth in death.

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
We x2249
(2249) Complement
ἡμεῖς
hemeis
{hay-mice'}
Nomitive plural of G1473; we (only used when emphatic).
know 1492
{1492} Prime
εἰδῶ
eido
{i-do'}
A primary verb; used only in certain past tenses, the others being borrowed from the equivalent, G3700 and G3708; properly to see (literally or figuratively); by implication (in the perfect only) to know.
z5758
<5758> Grammar
Tense - Perfect (See G5778)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 516
that 3754
{3754} Prime
ὅτι
hoti
{hot'-ee}
Neuter of G3748 as conjugation; demonstrative that (sometimes redundant); causatively because.
we y2249
[2249] Standard
ἡμεῖς
hemeis
{hay-mice'}
Nomitive plural of G1473; we (only used when emphatic).
have passed 3327
{3327} Prime
μεταβαίνω
metabaino
{met-ab-ah'-ee-no}
From G3326 and the base of G0939; to change place.
z5758
<5758> Grammar
Tense - Perfect (See G5778)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 516
from 1537
{1537} Prime
ἐκ
ek
{ek}
A primary preposition denoting origin (the point whence motion or action proceeds), from, out (of place, time or cause; literally or figuratively; direct or remote).
death 2288
{2288} Prime
θάνατος
thanatos
{than'-at-os}
From G2348; (properly an adjective used as a noun) death (literally or figuratively).
unto 1519
{1519} Prime
εἰς
eis
{ice}
A primary preposition; to or into (indicating the point reached or entered), of place, time, or (figuratively) purpose (result, etc.); also in adverbial phrases.
life, 2222
{2222} Prime
ζωή
zoe
{dzo-ay'}
From G2198; life (literally or figuratively).
because 3754
{3754} Prime
ὅτι
hoti
{hot'-ee}
Neuter of G3748 as conjugation; demonstrative that (sometimes redundant); causatively because.
we love 25
{0025} Prime
ἀγαπάω
agapao
{ag-ap-ah'-o}
Perhaps from ἄγαν [[agan]] (much; or compare [H5689]); to love (in a social or moral sense).
z5719
<5719> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 3019
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
brethren. 80
{0080} Prime
ἀδελφός
adelphos
{ad-el-fos'}
From G0001 (as a connective particle) and δελφύς [[delphus]] (the womb); a brother (literally or figuratively) near or remote (much like [H0001]).
He that loveth 25
{0025} Prime
ἀγαπάω
agapao
{ag-ap-ah'-o}
Perhaps from ἄγαν [[agan]] (much; or compare [H5689]); to love (in a social or moral sense).
z5723
<5723> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 2549
not 3361
{3361} Prime
μή
me
{may}
A primary particle of qualified negation (whereas G3756 expresses an absolute denial); (adverbially) not, (conjugationally) lest; also (as interrogitive implying a negative answer [whereas G3756 expects an affirmative one]); whether.
[his] brother 80
{0080} Prime
ἀδελφός
adelphos
{ad-el-fos'}
From G0001 (as a connective particle) and δελφύς [[delphus]] (the womb); a brother (literally or figuratively) near or remote (much like [H0001]).
abideth 3306
{3306} Prime
μένω
meno
{men'-o}
A primary verb; to stay (in a given place, state, relation or expectancy).
z5719
<5719> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 3019
in 1722
{1722} Prime
ἐν
en
{en}
A primary preposition denoting (fixed) position (in place, time or state), and (by implication) instrumentality (medially or constructively), that is, a relation of rest (intermediate between G1519 and G1537); 'in', at, (up-) on, by, etc.
death. 2288
{2288} Prime
θάνατος
thanatos
{than'-at-os}
From G2348; (properly an adjective used as a noun) death (literally or figuratively).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

1 John 3:14

_ _ We — emphatical; hated though we be by the world, we know what the world knows not.

_ _ know — as an assured fact.

_ _ passedchanged our state. Colossians 1:13, “from the power of darkness ... translated into the kingdom of His dear Son.”

_ _ from death unto life — literally, “out of the death (which enthralls the unregenerate) into the life (of the regenerate).” A palpable coincidence of language and thought, the beloved disciple adopting his Lord’s words.

_ _ because we love the brethren — the ground, not of our passing over out of death into life, but of our knowing that we have so. Love, on our part, is the evidence of our justification and regeneration, not the cause of them. “Let each go to his own heart; if he find there love to the brethren, let him feel assured that he has passed from death unto life. Let him not mind that his glory is only hidden; when the Lord shall come, then shall he appear in glory. For he has vital energy, but it is still wintertime; the root has vigor, but the branches are as it were dry; within there is marrow which is vigorous, within are leaves, within fruits, but they must wait for summer” [Augustine].

_ _ He that loveth not — Most of the oldest manuscripts omit “his brother,” which makes the statement more general.

_ _ abideth — still.

_ _ in death — “in the (spiritual) death” (ending in eternal death) which is the state of all by nature. His want of love evidences that no saving change has passed over him.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

1 John 3:14-19

_ _ The beloved apostle can scarcely touch upon the mention of sacred love, but he must enlarge upon the enforcement of it, as here he does by divers arguments and incentives thereto; as,

_ _ I. That it is a mark of our evangelical justification, of our transition into a state of life: We know that we have passed from death to life, because we love the brethren, 1 John 3:14. We are by nature children of wrath and heirs of death. By the gospel (the gospel-covenant or promise) our state towards another world is altered and changed. We pass from death to life, from the guilt of death to the right of life; and this transition is made upon our believing in the Lord Jesus: He that believeth on the Son hath everlasting life, and he that believeth not hath the wrath of God abiding on him, John 3:36. Now this happy change of state we may come to be assured of: We know that we have passed from death to life; we may know it by the evidences of our faith in Christ, of which this love to our brethren is one, which leads us to characterize this love that is such a mark of our justified state. It is not a zeal for a party in the common religion, or an affection for, or an affectation of, those who are of the same denomination and subordinate sentiments with ourselves. But this love,

_ _ 1. Supposes a general love to mankind: the law of Christian love, in the Christian community, is founded on the catholic law, in the society of mankind, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. Mankind are to be loved principally on these two accounts: — (1.) As the excellent work of God, made by him, and made in wonderful resemblance of him. The reason that God assigns for the certain punishment of a murderer is a reason against our hatred of any of the brethren of mankind, and consequently a reason for our love to them: for in the image of God made he man, Genesis 9:6. (2.) As being, in some measure, beloved in Christ. The whole race of mankind — the gens humana, should be considered as being, in distinction from fallen angels, a redeemed nation; as having a divine Redeemer designed, prepared, and given for them. So God loved the world, even this world, that he gave his only-begotten Son, that whosoever believeth on him should not perish, but have everlasting life, John 3:16. A world so beloved of God should accordingly be loved by us. And this love will exert itself in earnest desires, and prayers, and attempts, for the conversion and salvation of the yet uncalled blinded world. My heart's desire and prayer for Israel are that they may be saved. And then this love will include all due love to enemies themselves.

_ _ 2. It includes a peculiar love to the Christian society, to the catholic church, and that for the sake of her head, as being his body, as being redeemed, justified, and sanctified in and by him; and this love particularly acts and operates towards those of the catholic church that we have opportunity of being personally acquainted with or credibly informed of. They are not so much loved for their own sakes as for the sake of God and Christ, who have loved them. And it is God and Christ, or, if you will, the love of God and grace of Christ, that are beloved and valued in them and towards them. And so this is the issue of faith in Christ, and is thereupon a note of our passage from death to life.

_ _ II. The hatred of our brethren is, on the contrary, a sign of our deadly state, of our continuance under the legal sentence of death: He that loveth not his brother (his brother in Christ) abideth in death, 1 John 3:14. He yet stands under the curse and condemnation of the law. This the apostle argues by a clear syllogism: “You know that no murderer hath eternal life abiding in him; but he who hates his brother is a murderer; and therefore you cannot but know that he who hates his brother hath not eternal life abiding in him,” 1 John 3:15. Or, he abideth in death, as it is expressed, 1 John 3:14, Whosoever hateth his brother is a murderer; for hatred of the person is, so far as it prevails, a hatred of life and welfare, and naturally tends to desire the extinction of it. Cain hated, and then slew, his brother. Hatred will shut up the bowels of compassion from the poor brethren, and will thereby expose them to the sorrows of death. And it has appeared that hatred of the brethren has in all ages dressed them up in ill names, odious characters, and calumnies, and exposed them to persecution and the sword. No wonder, then, that he who has a considerable acquaintance with the heart of man, or is taught by him who fully knows it, who knows the natural tendency and issue of vile and violent passions, and knows withal the fulness of the divine law, declares him who hates his brother to be a murderer. Now he who by the frame and disposition of his heart is a murderer cannot have eternal life abiding in him; for he who is such must needs be carnally-minded, and to be carnally-minded is death, Romans 8:6. The apostle, by the expression of having eternal life abiding in us, may seem to mean the possession of an internal principle of endless life, according to that of the Saviour, Whosoever drinketh of the water that I shall give him shall never thirst, shall never be totally destitute thereof; but the water that I shall give him shall be in him a well of water springing up into everlasting life, John 4:14. And thereupon some may be apt to surmise that the passing from death to life (1 John 3:14) does not signify the relative change made in our justification of life, but the real change made in the regeneration to life; and accordingly that the abiding in death mentioned 1 John 3:14 is continuance in spiritual death, as it is usually called, or abiding in the corrupt deadly temper of nature. But as these passages more naturally denote the state of the person, whether adjudged to life or death, so the relative transition from death to life may well be proved or disproved by the possession or non-possession of the inward principle of eternal life, since washing from the guilt of sin is inseparably united with washing from the filth and power of sin. But you are washed, but you are sanctified, but you are justified, in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God, 1 Corinthians 6:11.

_ _ III. The example of God and Christ should inflame our hearts with this holy love: Hereby perceive we the love of God, because he laid down his life for us; and we ought to lay down our lives for the brethren, 1 John 3:16. The great God has given his Son to the death for us. But since this apostle has declared that the Word was God, and that he became flesh for us, I see not why we may not interpret this of God the Word. Here is the love of God himself, of him who in his own person is God, though not the Father, that he assumed a life, that he might lay it down for us! Here is the condescension, the miracle, the mystery of divine love, that God would redeem the church with his own blood! Surely we should love those whom God hath loved, and so loved; and we shall certainly do so if we have any love for God.

_ _ IV. The apostle, having proposed this flaming constraining example of love, and motive to it, proceeds to show us what should be the temper and effect of this our Christian love. And, 1. It must be, in the highest degree, so fervent as to make us willing to suffer even to death for the good of the church, for the safety and salvation of the dear brethren: And we ought to lay down our lives for the brethren (1 John 3:16), either in our ministrations and services to them (yea, and if I be offered upon the service and sacrifice of your faith, I joy and rejoice with you all — I shall congratulate your felicity, Philippians 2:17), or in exposing ourselves to hazards, when called thereto, for the safety and preservation of those that are more serviceable to the glory of God and the edification of the church than we can be. Who have for my life laid down their own necks; unto whom not only I give thanks, but also all the churches of the Gentiles, Romans 16:4. How mortified should the Christian be to this life! How prepared to part with it! And how well assured of a better! 2. It must be, in the next degree, compassionate, liberal, and communicative to the necessities of the brethren: For whoso hath this world's good, and seeth his brother have need, and shutteth up his bowels of compassion from him, how dwelleth the love of God in him? 1 John 3:17. It pleases God that some of the Christian brethren should be poor, for the exercise of the charity and love of those that are rich. And it pleases the same God to give to some of the Christian brethren this world's good, that they may exercise their grace in communicating to the poor saints. And those who have this world's good must love a good God more, and their good brethren more, and be ready to distribute it for their sakes. It appears here that this love to the brethren is founded upon love to God, in that it is here called so by the apostle: How dwelleth the love of God in him? This love to the brethren is love to God in them; and where there is none of this love to them there is no true love to God at all. 3. I was going to intimate the third and lowest degree in the next verse; but the apostle has prevented me, by intimating that this last charitable communicative love, in persons of ability, is the lowest that can consist with the love of God. But there may be other fruits of this love; and therefore the apostle desires that in all it should be unfeigned and operative, as circumstances will allow: My little children (my dear children in Christ), let us not love in word, neither in tongue, but in deed and in truth, 1 John 3:18. Compliments and flatteries become not Christians; but the sincere expressions of sacred affection, and the services or labours of love, do. Then,

_ _ V. This love will evince our sincerity in religion, and give us hope towards God: And hereby we know that we are of the truth, and shall assure our hearts before him, 1 John 3:19. It is a great happiness to be assured of our integrity in religion. Those that are so assured may have holy boldness or confidence towards God; they may appeal to him from the censures and condemnation of the world. The way to arrive at the knowledge of our own truth and uprightness in Christianity, and to secure our inward peace, is to abound in love and in the works of love towards the Christian brethren.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

1 John 3:14

We know — As if he had said, We ourselves could not love our brethren, unless we were passed from spiritual death to life, that is, born of God. He that loveth not his brother abideth in death — That is, is not born of God. And he that is not born of God, cannot love his brother.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

1 John 3:14

(14) We (o) know that we have passed from death unto life, because we love the brethren. He that loveth not [his] brother abideth in death.

(14) The second reason: Because charity is a testimony that we are translated from death to life: and therefore hatred towards the brethren is a testimony of death, and whoever nourishes it fosters death in his bosom.

(o) Love is a token that we are translated from death to life, for by the effects the cause is known.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
We know:

1 John 2:3 And hereby we do know that we know him, if we keep his commandments.
1 John 5:2 By this we know that we love the children of God, when we love God, and keep his commandments.
1 John 5:13 These things have I written unto you that believe on the name of the Son of God; that ye may know that ye have eternal life, and that ye may believe on the name of the Son of God.
1 John 5:19-20 [And] we know that we are of God, and the whole world lieth in wickedness. ... And we know that the Son of God is come, and hath given us an understanding, that we may know him that is true, and we are in him that is true, [even] in his Son Jesus Christ. This is the true God, and eternal life.
2 Corinthians 5:1 For we know that if our earthly house of [this] tabernacle were dissolved, we have a building of God, an house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens.

we have:

Luke 15:24 For this my son was dead, and is alive again; he was lost, and is found. And they began to be merry.
Luke 15:32 It was meet that we should make merry, and be glad: for this thy brother was dead, and is alive again; and was lost, and is found.
John 5:24 Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that heareth my word, and believeth on him that sent me, hath everlasting life, and shall not come into condemnation; but is passed from death unto life.
Ephesians 2:1 And you [hath he quickened], who were dead in trespasses and sins;
Ephesians 2:5 Even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with Christ, (by grace ye are saved;)

because:

1 John 2:10 He that loveth his brother abideth in the light, and there is none occasion of stumbling in him.
1 John 3:23 And this is his commandment, That we should believe on the name of his Son Jesus Christ, and love one another, as he gave us commandment.
1 John 4:7-8 Beloved, let us love one another: for love is of God; and every one that loveth is born of God, and knoweth God. ... He that loveth not knoweth not God; for God is love.
1 John 4:12 No man hath seen God at any time. If we love one another, God dwelleth in us, and his love is perfected in us.
1 John 4:21 And this commandment have we from him, That he who loveth God love his brother also.
1 John 5:2 By this we know that we love the children of God, when we love God, and keep his commandments.
Psalms 16:3 [But] to the saints that [are] in the earth, and [to] the excellent, in whom [is] all my delight.
Matthew 25:40 And the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye have done [it] unto one of the least of these my brethren, ye have done [it] unto me.
John 13:35 By this shall all [men] know that ye are my disciples, if ye have love one to another.
John 15:12 This is my commandment, That ye love one another, as I have loved you.
John 15:17 These things I command you, that ye love one another.
Galatians 5:22 But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, gentleness, goodness, faith,
Ephesians 1:15 Wherefore I also, after I heard of your faith in the Lord Jesus, and love unto all the saints,
Colossians 1:4 Since we heard of your faith in Christ Jesus, and of the love [which ye have] to all the saints,
1 Thessalonians 4:9 But as touching brotherly love ye need not that I write unto you: for ye yourselves are taught of God to love one another.
Hebrews 6:10-11 For God [is] not unrighteous to forget your work and labour of love, which ye have shewed toward his name, in that ye have ministered to the saints, and do minister. ... And we desire that every one of you do shew the same diligence to the full assurance of hope unto the end:
Hebrews 13:1 Let brotherly love continue.
1 Peter 1:22 Seeing ye have purified your souls in obeying the truth through the Spirit unto unfeigned love of the brethren, [see that ye] love one another with a pure heart fervently:
1 Peter 3:8 Finally, [be ye] all of one mind, having compassion one of another, love as brethren, [be] pitiful, [be] courteous:
2 Peter 1:7 And to godliness brotherly kindness; and to brotherly kindness charity.

that loveth:

1 John 2:9 He that saith he is in the light, and hateth his brother, is in darkness even until now.
1 John 2:11 But he that hateth his brother is in darkness, and walketh in darkness, and knoweth not whither he goeth, because that darkness hath blinded his eyes.
1 John 4:20 If a man say, I love God, and hateth his brother, he is a liar: for he that loveth not his brother whom he hath seen, how can he love God whom he hath not seen?
Proverbs 21:16 The man that wandereth out of the way of understanding shall remain in the congregation of the dead.
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Ps 16:3. Pv 21:16. Mt 25:40. Lk 15:24, 32. Jn 5:24; 13:35; 15:12, 17. 2Co 5:1. Ga 5:22. Ep 1:15; 2:1, 5. Col 1:4. 1Th 4:9. He 6:10; 13:1. 1P 1:22; 3:8. 2P 1:7. 1Jn 2:3, 9, 10, 11; 3:23; 4:7, 12, 20, 21; 5:2, 13, 19.

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