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1 John 3:12 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— not as Cain was of the evil one, and slew his brother. And wherefore slew he him? Because his works were evil, and his brother's righteous.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Not as Cain, [who] was of that wicked one, and slew his brother. And wherefore slew he him? Because his own works were evil, and his brother's righteous.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— not as Cain, [who] was of the evil one and slew his brother. And for what reason did he slay him? Because his deeds were evil, and his brother’s were righteous.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Not as Cain, [who] was of that wicked one, and slew his brother. And why did he slay him? Because his own works were evil, and his brother's righteous.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— not as Cain was of the wicked one, and slew his brother; and on account of what slew he him? because his works were wicked, and those of his brother righteous.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Not just as, Cain, was, of the wicked one, and slew his brother! And, for what cause, slew he him? Because, his works, were, wicked, whereas, those of his brother, were, righteous.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— not as Cain—of the evil one he was, and he did slay his brother, and wherefore did he slay him? because his works were evil, and those of his brother righteous.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Not as Cain, who was of the wicked one and killed his brother. And wherefore did he kill him? Because his own works were wicked: and his brother's just.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Not as Cain, [who] was of that wicked one, and slewe his brother: and wherefore slewe hee him? because his owne workes were euill, and his brothers righteous.
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— Not as Koen, who was from the Evil, and killed his brother. And on what account killed he him? unless that his own works were evil and his brother's righteous.
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— Not like Cain, who was of the evil one, and slew his brother. And why did he slay him, but because his own works were evil, and those of his brother righteous?

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Not 3756
{3756} Prime
οὐ
ou
{oo}
A primary word; the absolutely negative (compare G3361) adverb; no or not.
as 2531
{2531} Prime
καθώς
kathos
{kath-oce'}
From G2596 and G5613; just (or inasmuch) as, that.
Cain, 2535
{2535} Prime
Κάϊν
Kain
{kah'-in}
Of Hebrew origin [H7014]; Cain (that is, Cajin), the son of Adam.
[who] was 2258
{2258} Prime
ἦν
en
{ane}
Imperfect of G1510; I (thou, etc.) was (wast or were).
z5713
<5713> Grammar
Tense - Imperfect (See G5775)
Voice - No Voice Stated (See G5799)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 532
of 1537
{1537} Prime
ἐκ
ek
{ek}
A primary preposition denoting origin (the point whence motion or action proceeds), from, out (of place, time or cause; literally or figuratively; direct or remote).
that wicked one, 4190
{4190} Prime
πονηρός
poneros
{pon-ay-ros'}
From a derivative of G4192; hurtful, that is, evil (properly in effect or influence, and thus differing from G2556, which refers rather to essential character, as well as from G4550, which indicates degeneracy from original virtue); figuratively calamitous; also (passively) ill, that is, diseased; but especially (morally) culpable, that is, derelict, vicious, facinorous; neuter (singular) mischief, malice, or (plural) guilt; masculine (singular) the devil, or (plural) sinners.
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
slew 4969
{4969} Prime
σφάζω
sphazo
{sfad'-zo}
A primary verb; to butcher (especially an animal for food or in sacrifice) or (generally) to slaughter, or (specifically) to maim (violently).
z5656
<5656> Grammar
Tense - Aorist (See G5777)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 2319
his y846
[0846] Standard
αὐτός
autos
{ow-tos'}
From the particle αὖ [[au]] (perhaps akin to the base of G0109 through the idea of a baffling wind; backward); the reflexive pronoun self, used (alone or in the compound of G1438) of the third person, and (with the proper personal pronoun) of the other persons.
x848
(0848) Complement
αὑτοῦ
hautou
{how-too'}
Contraction for G1438; self (in some oblique case or reflexive relation).
brother. 80
{0080} Prime
ἀδελφός
adelphos
{ad-el-fos'}
From G0001 (as a connective particle) and δελφύς [[delphus]] (the womb); a brother (literally or figuratively) near or remote (much like [H0001]).
And 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
wherefore 5484
{5484} Prime
χάριν
charin
{khar'-in}
Accusative case of G5485 as preposition; through favor of, that is, on account of.
5101
{5101} Prime
τίς
tis
{tis}
Probably emphatic of G5100; an interrogitive pronoun, who, which or what (in direct or indirect questions).
slew 4969
{4969} Prime
σφάζω
sphazo
{sfad'-zo}
A primary verb; to butcher (especially an animal for food or in sacrifice) or (generally) to slaughter, or (specifically) to maim (violently).
z5656
<5656> Grammar
Tense - Aorist (See G5777)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 2319
he him? 846
{0846} Prime
αὐτός
autos
{ow-tos'}
From the particle αὖ [[au]] (perhaps akin to the base of G0109 through the idea of a baffling wind; backward); the reflexive pronoun self, used (alone or in the compound of G1438) of the third person, and (with the proper personal pronoun) of the other persons.
Because 3754
{3754} Prime
ὅτι
hoti
{hot'-ee}
Neuter of G3748 as conjugation; demonstrative that (sometimes redundant); causatively because.
his own y846
[0846] Standard
αὐτός
autos
{ow-tos'}
From the particle αὖ [[au]] (perhaps akin to the base of G0109 through the idea of a baffling wind; backward); the reflexive pronoun self, used (alone or in the compound of G1438) of the third person, and (with the proper personal pronoun) of the other persons.
x848
(0848) Complement
αὑτοῦ
hautou
{how-too'}
Contraction for G1438; self (in some oblique case or reflexive relation).
works 2041
{2041} Prime
ἔργον
ergon
{er'-gon}
From ἔργω [[ergo]] (a primary but obsolete word; to work); toil (as an effort or occupation); by implication an act.
were 2258
{2258} Prime
ἦν
en
{ane}
Imperfect of G1510; I (thou, etc.) was (wast or were).
z5713
<5713> Grammar
Tense - Imperfect (See G5775)
Voice - No Voice Stated (See G5799)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 532
evil, 4190
{4190} Prime
πονηρός
poneros
{pon-ay-ros'}
From a derivative of G4192; hurtful, that is, evil (properly in effect or influence, and thus differing from G2556, which refers rather to essential character, as well as from G4550, which indicates degeneracy from original virtue); figuratively calamitous; also (passively) ill, that is, diseased; but especially (morally) culpable, that is, derelict, vicious, facinorous; neuter (singular) mischief, malice, or (plural) guilt; masculine (singular) the devil, or (plural) sinners.
and 1161
{1161} Prime
δέ
de
{deh}
A primary particle (adversative or continuative); but, and, etc.
his y846
[0846] Standard
αὐτός
autos
{ow-tos'}
From the particle αὖ [[au]] (perhaps akin to the base of G0109 through the idea of a baffling wind; backward); the reflexive pronoun self, used (alone or in the compound of G1438) of the third person, and (with the proper personal pronoun) of the other persons.
x848
(0848) Complement
αὑτοῦ
hautou
{how-too'}
Contraction for G1438; self (in some oblique case or reflexive relation).
brother's 80
{0080} Prime
ἀδελφός
adelphos
{ad-el-fos'}
From G0001 (as a connective particle) and δελφύς [[delphus]] (the womb); a brother (literally or figuratively) near or remote (much like [H0001]).
righteous. 1342
{1342} Prime
δίκαιος
dikaios
{dik'-ah-yos}
From G1349; equitable (in character or act); by implication innocent, holy (absolutely or relatively).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

1 John 3:12

_ _ who — not in the Greek.

_ _ of that wicked one — Translate, “evil one,” to accord with “Because his own works were evil.” Compare 1 John 3:8, “of the devil,” in contrast to “of God,” 1 John 3:10.

_ _ slew he him? Because his own works were evil, and his brother’s righteous — through envy and hatred of his brother’s piety, owing to which God accepted Abel’s, but rejected Cain’s offering. Enmity from the first existed between the seed of the woman and the seed of the serpent.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on 1 John 3:11-13.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

1 John 3:12

Who was of the wicked one — Who showed he was a child of the devil by killing his brother. And wherefore slew he him — For any fault? No, but just the reverse; for his goodness.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

1 John 3:12

(12) Not as Cain, [who] was of that wicked one, and slew his brother. (13) And wherefore slew he him? Because his own works were evil, and his brother's righteous.

(12) An amplification taken from the contrary example of Cain who slew his brother.

(13) A short digression: Let us not marvel that we are hated by the world for doing our duty, for such was the condition of Abel who was a just person: and who would not rather be like him than Cain?

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
as:

Genesis 4:4-15 And Abel, he also brought of the firstlings of his flock and of the fat thereof. And the LORD had respect unto Abel and to his offering: ... And the LORD said unto him, Therefore whosoever slayeth Cain, vengeance shall be taken on him sevenfold. And the LORD set a mark upon Cain, lest any finding him should kill him.
Genesis 4:25 And Adam knew his wife again; and she bare a son, and called his name Seth: For God, [said she], hath appointed me another seed instead of Abel, whom Cain slew.
Hebrews 11:4 By faith Abel offered unto God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain, by which he obtained witness that he was righteous, God testifying of his gifts: and by it he being dead yet speaketh.
Jude 1:11 Woe unto them! for they have gone in the way of Cain, and ran greedily after the error of Balaam for reward, and perished in the gainsaying of Core.

of:

1 John 3:8 He that committeth sin is of the devil; for the devil sinneth from the beginning. For this purpose the Son of God was manifested, that he might destroy the works of the devil.
1 John 2:13-14 I write unto you, fathers, because ye have known him [that is] from the beginning. I write unto you, young men, because ye have overcome the wicked one. I write unto you, little children, because ye have known the Father. ... I have written unto you, fathers, because ye have known him [that is] from the beginning. I have written unto you, young men, because ye are strong, and the word of God abideth in you, and ye have overcome the wicked one.
Matthew 13:19 When any one heareth the word of the kingdom, and understandeth [it] not, then cometh the wicked [one], and catcheth away that which was sown in his heart. This is he which received seed by the way side.
Matthew 13:38 The field is the world; the good seed are the children of the kingdom; but the tares are the children of the wicked [one];

And:

1 Samuel 18:14-15 And David behaved himself wisely in all his ways; and the LORD [was] with him. ... Wherefore when Saul saw that he behaved himself very wisely, he was afraid of him.
1 Samuel 19:4-5 And Jonathan spake good of David unto Saul his father, and said unto him, Let not the king sin against his servant, against David; because he hath not sinned against thee, and because his works [have been] to thee-ward very good: ... For he did put his life in his hand, and slew the Philistine, and the LORD wrought a great salvation for all Israel: thou sawest [it], and didst rejoice: wherefore then wilt thou sin against innocent blood, to slay David without a cause?
1 Samuel 22:14-16 Then Ahimelech answered the king, and said, And who [is so] faithful among all thy servants as David, which is the king's son in law, and goeth at thy bidding, and is honourable in thine house? ... And the king said, Thou shalt surely die, Ahimelech, thou, and all thy father's house.
Psalms 37:12 The wicked plotteth against the just, and gnasheth upon him with his teeth.
Proverbs 29:27 An unjust man [is] an abomination to the just: and [he that is] upright in the way [is] abomination to the wicked.
Matthew 27:23 And the governor said, Why, what evil hath he done? But they cried out the more, saying, Let him be crucified.
John 10:32 Jesus answered them, Many good works have I shewed you from my Father; for which of those works do ye stone me?
John 15:19-25 If ye were of the world, the world would love his own: but because ye are not of the world, but I have chosen you out of the world, therefore the world hateth you. ... But [this cometh to pass], that the word might be fulfilled that is written in their law, They hated me without a cause.
John 18:38-40 Pilate saith unto him, What is truth? And when he had said this, he went out again unto the Jews, and saith unto them, I find in him no fault [at all]. ... Then cried they all again, saying, Not this man, but Barabbas. Now Barabbas was a robber.
Acts 7:52 Which of the prophets have not your fathers persecuted? and they have slain them which shewed before of the coming of the Just One; of whom ye have been now the betrayers and murderers:
1 Thessalonians 2:14 For ye, brethren, became followers of the churches of God which in Judaea are in Christ Jesus: for ye also have suffered like things of your own countrymen, even as they [have] of the Jews:
1 Peter 4:4 Wherein they think it strange that ye run not with [them] to the same excess of riot, speaking evil of [you]:
Revelation 17:6 And I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the saints, and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus: and when I saw her, I wondered with great admiration.

and his:

Matthew 23:35 That upon you may come all the righteous blood shed upon the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel unto the blood of Zacharias son of Barachias, whom ye slew between the temple and the altar.
Luke 11:51 From the blood of Abel unto the blood of Zacharias, which perished between the altar and the temple: verily I say unto you, It shall be required of this generation.
Hebrews 11:4 By faith Abel offered unto God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain, by which he obtained witness that he was righteous, God testifying of his gifts: and by it he being dead yet speaketh.
Hebrews 12:24 And to Jesus the mediator of the new covenant, and to the blood of sprinkling, that speaketh better things than [that of] Abel.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Gn 4:4, 25. 1S 18:14; 19:4; 22:14. Ps 37:12. Pv 29:27. Mt 13:19, 38; 23:35; 27:23. Lk 11:51. Jn 10:32; 15:19; 18:38. Ac 7:52. 1Th 2:14. He 11:4; 12:24. 1P 4:4. 1Jn 2:13; 3:8. Jde 1:11. Rv 17:6.

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