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1 Corinthians 4:9 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— For, I think, God hath set forth us the apostles last of all, as men doomed to death: for we are made a spectacle unto the world, both to angels and men.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— For I think that God hath set forth us the apostles last, as it were appointed to death: for we are made a spectacle unto the world, and to angels, and to men.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— For, I think, God has exhibited us apostles last of all, as men condemned to death; because we have become a spectacle to the world, both to angels and to men.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— For I think that God hath set forth us the apostles last, as it were appointed to death: for we are made a spectacle to the world, and to angels, and to men.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— For I think that God has set us the apostles for the last, as appointed to death. For we have become a spectacle to the world, both to angels and men.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— For I think that, God, hath set forth, us the apostles, to be last of all, as men devoted to death,—in that, a spectacle, have we been made, unto the world,—both unto messengers and unto men.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— for I think that God did set forth us the apostles last—as appointed to death, because a spectacle we became to the world, and messengers, and men;
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— For I think that God hath set forth us apostles, the last, as it were men appointed to death. We are made a spectacle to the world and to angels and to men.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— For I thinke that God hath set forth vs the Apostles last, as it were approued to death. For wee are made a spectacle vnto the world, and to Angels, and to men.
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— But I consider that us, the apostles, Aloha hath set last, as unto death, to be a spectacle to the world, to angels, and to men,
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— But I suppose, that God hath placed us legates the last, as for death; since we have become a spectacle to the world, to angels and to men.

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
For 1063
{1063} Prime
γάρ
gar
{gar}
A primary particle; properly assigning a reason (used in argument, explanation or intensification; often with other particles).
I think 1380
{1380} Prime
δοκέω
dokeo
{dok-eh'-o}
A prolonged form of a primary verb δόκω [[doko]], {dok'-o} (used only as an alternate in certain tenses; compare the base of G1166); of the same meaning; to think; by implication to seem (truthfully or uncertainly).
z5719
<5719> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 3019
that 3754
{3754} Prime
ὅτι
hoti
{hot'-ee}
Neuter of G3748 as conjugation; demonstrative that (sometimes redundant); causatively because.
God 2316
{2316} Prime
θεός
theos
{theh'-os}
Of uncertain affinity; a deity, especially (with G3588) the supreme Divinity; figuratively a magistrate; by Hebraism very.
hath set forth 584
{0584} Prime
ἀποδείκνυμι
apodeiknumi
{ap-od-ike'-noo-mee}
From G0575 and G1166; to show off, that is, exhibit; figuratively to demonstrate, that is, accredit.
z5656
<5656> Grammar
Tense - Aorist (See G5777)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 2319
us 2248
{2248} Prime
ἡμᾶς
hemas
{hay-mas'}
Accusative plural of G1473; us.
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
apostles 652
{0652} Prime
ἀπόστολος
apostolos
{ap-os'-tol-os}
From G0649; a delegate; specifically an ambassador of the Gospel; officially a commissioner of Christ ('apostle'), (with miraculous powers).
last, 2078
{2078} Prime
ἔσχατος
eschatos
{es'-khat-os}
A superlative probably from G2192 (in the sense of contiguity); farthest, final (of place or time).
as y5613
[5613] Standard
ὡς
hos
{hoce}
Probably adverb of comparative from G3739; which how, that is, in that manner (very variously used as shown).
it were x5613
(5613) Complement
ὡς
hos
{hoce}
Probably adverb of comparative from G3739; which how, that is, in that manner (very variously used as shown).
appointed to death: 1935
{1935} Prime
ἐπιθανάτιος
epithanatios
{ep-ee-than-at'-ee-os}
From G1909 and G2288; doomed to death.
for 3754
{3754} Prime
ὅτι
hoti
{hot'-ee}
Neuter of G3748 as conjugation; demonstrative that (sometimes redundant); causatively because.
we are made 1096
{1096} Prime
γίνομαι
ginomai
{ghin'-om-ahee}
A prolonged and middle form of a primary verb; to cause to be ('gen' -erate), that is, (reflexively) to become (come into being), used with great latitude (literally, figuratively, intensively, etc.).
z5675
<5675> Grammar
Tense - Aorist (See G5777)
Voice - Passive Deponent (See G5789)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 79
a spectacle 2302
{2302} Prime
θέατρον
theatron
{theh'-at-ron}
From G2300; a place for public show ('theatre'), that is, general audience room; by implication a show itself (figuratively).
unto the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
world, 2889
{2889} Prime
κόσμος
kosmos
{kos'-mos}
Probably from the base of G2865; orderly arrangement, that is, decoration; by implication the world (in a wide or narrow sense, including its inhabitants, literally or figuratively [morally]).
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
to angels, 32
{0032} Prime
ἄγγελος
aggelos
{ang'-el-os}
From ἀγγέλλω [[aggello]] (probably derived from G0071; compare G0034; to bring tidings); a messenger; especially an 'angel'; by implication a pastor.
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
to men. 444
{0444} Prime
ἄνθρωπος
anthropos
{anth'-ro-pos}
From G0435 and ὤψ [[ops]] (the countenance; from G3700); manfaced, that is, a human being.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

1 Corinthians 4:9

_ _ For — assigning the reason for desiring that the “reign” of himself and his fellow apostles with the Corinthians were come; namely, the present afflictions of the former.

_ _ I think — The Corinthians (1 Corinthians 3:18) “seemed” to (literally, as here, “thought”) themselves “wise in this world.” Paul, in contrast, “thinks” that God has sent forth him and his fellow ministers “last,” that is, the lowest in this world. The apostles fared worse than even the prophets, who, though sometimes afflicted, were often honored (2 Kings 1:10; 2 Kings 5:9; 2 Kings 8:9, 2 Kings 8:12).

_ _ set forth — as a spectacle or gazing-stock.

_ _ us the apostles — Paul includes Apollos with the apostles, in the broader sense of the word; so Romans 16:7; 2 Corinthians 8:23 (Greek for “messengers,” apostles).

_ _ as it were appointed to death — as criminals condemned to die.

_ _ made a spectacle — literally, “a theatrical spectacle.” So the Greek in Hebrews 10:33, “made a gazing-stock by reproaches and afflictions.” Criminals “condemned to die,” in Paul’s time, were exhibited as a gazing-stock to amuse the populace in the amphitheater. They were “set forth last” in the show, to fight with wild beasts. This explains the imagery of Paul here. (Compare Tertullian [On Modesty, 14]).

_ _ the world — to the whole world, including “both angels and men”; “the whole family in heaven and earth” (Ephesians 3:15). As Jesus was “seen of angels” (1 Timothy 3:16), so His followers are a spectacle to the holy angels who take a deep interest in all the progressive steps of redemption (Ephesians 3:10; 1 Peter 1:12). Paul tacitly implies that though “last” and lowest in the world’s judgment, Christ’s servants are deemed by angels a spectacle worthy of their most intense regard [Chrysostom]. However, since “the world” is a comprehensive expression, and is applied in this Epistle to the evil especially (1 Corinthians 1:27, 1 Corinthians 1:28), and since the spectators (in the image drawn from the amphitheater) gaze at the show with savage delight, rather than with sympathy for the sufferers, I think bad angels are included, besides good angels. Estius makes the bad alone to be meant. But the generality of the term “angels,” and its frequent use in a good sense, as well as Ephesians 3:10; 1 Peter 1:12, incline me to include good as well as bad angels, though, for the reasons stated above, the bad may be principally meant.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on 1 Corinthians 4:7-13.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

1 Corinthians 4:9

God hath set forth us last, as appointed to death — Alluding to the Roman custom of bringing forth those persons last on the stage, either to fight with each other, or with wild beasts, who were devoted to death; so that, if they escaped one day, they were brought out again and again, till they were killed.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

1 Corinthians 4:9

For I think that God hath set forth us the apostles last, as it were appointed to death: for we are made a (g) spectacle unto the world, and to angels, and to men.

(g) He that thinks that Paul and the pope are alike, who lyingly boasts that he is his successor, let him compare the delicacies of the popish court with Paul's state as we see it here.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
I:

1 Corinthians 15:30-32 And why stand we in jeopardy every hour? ... If after the manner of men I have fought with beasts at Ephesus, what advantageth it me, if the dead rise not? let us eat and drink; for to morrow we die.
2 Corinthians 1:8-10 For we would not, brethren, have you ignorant of our trouble which came to us in Asia, that we were pressed out of measure, above strength, insomuch that we despaired even of life: ... Who delivered us from so great a death, and doth deliver: in whom we trust that he will yet deliver [us];
2 Corinthians 4:8-12 [We are] troubled on every side, yet not distressed; [we are] perplexed, but not in despair; ... So then death worketh in us, but life in you.
2 Corinthians 6:9 As unknown, and [yet] well known; as dying, and, behold, we live; as chastened, and not killed;
Philippians 1:29-30 For unto you it is given in the behalf of Christ, not only to believe on him, but also to suffer for his sake; ... Having the same conflict which ye saw in me, and now hear [to be] in me.
1 Thessalonians 3:3 That no man should be moved by these afflictions: for yourselves know that we are appointed thereunto.

us the apostles last, as:
or, us the last apostles

as:

Psalms 44:22 Yea, for thy sake are we killed all the day long; we are counted as sheep for the slaughter.
Romans 8:36 As it is written, For thy sake we are killed all the day long; we are accounted as sheep for the slaughter.
1 Thessalonians 5:9-10 For God hath not appointed us to wrath, but to obtain salvation by our Lord Jesus Christ, ... Who died for us, that, whether we wake or sleep, we should live together with him.
Revelation 6:9-11 And when he had opened the fifth seal, I saw under the altar the souls of them that were slain for the word of God, and for the testimony which they held: ... And white robes were given unto every one of them; and it was said unto them, that they should rest yet for a little season, until their fellowservants also and their brethren, that should be killed as they [were], should be fulfilled.

we are:

Hebrews 10:33 Partly, whilst ye were made a gazingstock both by reproaches and afflictions; and partly, whilst ye became companions of them that were so used.
Hebrews 11:36 And others had trial of [cruel] mockings and scourgings, yea, moreover of bonds and imprisonment:

spectacle:
Gr. theatre,
Acts 19:29 And the whole city was filled with confusion: and having caught Gaius and Aristarchus, men of Macedonia, Paul's companions in travel, they rushed with one accord into the theatre.
Acts 19:31 And certain of the chief of Asia, which were his friends, sent unto him, desiring [him] that he would not adventure himself into the theatre.

and to men:

Hebrews 1:14 Are they not all ministering spirits, sent forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation?
Revelation 7:11-14 And all the angels stood round about the throne, and [about] the elders and the four beasts, and fell before the throne on their faces, and worshipped God, ... And I said unto him, Sir, thou knowest. And he said to me, These are they which came out of great tribulation, and have washed their robes, and made them white in the blood of the Lamb.
Revelation 17:6-7 And I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the saints, and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus: and when I saw her, I wondered with great admiration. ... And the angel said unto me, Wherefore didst thou marvel? I will tell thee the mystery of the woman, and of the beast that carrieth her, which hath the seven heads and ten horns.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Ps 44:22. Ac 19:29, 31. Ro 8:36. 1Co 15:30. 2Co 1:8; 4:8; 6:9. Php 1:29. 1Th 3:3; 5:9. He 1:14; 10:33; 11:36. Rv 6:9; 7:11; 17:6.

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