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1 Chronicles 5:18 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— The sons of Reuben, and the Gadites, and the half-tribe of Manasseh, of valiant men, men able to bear buckler and sword, and to shoot with bow, and skilful in war, were forty and four thousand seven hundred and threescore, that were able to go forth to war.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— The sons of Reuben, and the Gadites, and half the tribe of Manasseh, of valiant men, men able to bear buckler and sword, and to shoot with bow, and skilful in war, [were] four and forty thousand seven hundred and threescore, that went out to the war.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— The sons of Reuben and the Gadites and the half-tribe of Manasseh, [consisting] of valiant men, men who bore shield and sword and shot with bow and [were] skillful in battle, [were] 44,760, who went to war.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— The sons of Reuben, and the Gadites, and half the tribe of Manasseh, of valiant men, men able to bear buckler and sword, and to shoot with bow, and skillful in war, [were] four and forty thousand seven hundred and sixty, that went out to the war.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— The children of Reuben and the Gadites and half the tribe of Manasseh, of valiant men, men who carried shield and sword, drawing the bow and skilful in war, were forty-four thousand seven hundred and sixty, able to go forth to war.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— the sons of Reuben and Gad, and half tribe of Manasseh, of the sons of valour, men bearing shield and sword and bending the bow, and instructed in war, were forty-four thousand and seven hundred and sixty, ready to go forth in the host.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— Sons of Reuben, and the Gadite, and the half of the tribe of Manasseh, of sons of valour, men bearing shield and sword, and treading bow, and taught in battle, [are] forty and four thousand and seven hundred and sixty, going out to the host.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— The Sons of Ruben, and of Gad, and of the half tribe of Manasses, fighting men, bearing shields, and swords, and bending the bow, and trained up to battles, four and forty thousand seven hundred and threescore that went out to war.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— The sonnes of Reuben, and the Gadites, and halfe the tribe of Manasseh, of valiant men, men able to beare buckler and sword, and to shoote with bow, and skilfull in warre, were foure and fourtie thousand, seuen hundred and threescore, that went out to the warre.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— The sons of Reuben{gr.Ruben} and Gad, and the half-tribe of Manasseh{gr.Manasse}, of mighty men, bearing shields and sword, and bending the bow, and skilled in war, [were] forty and four thousand and seven hundred and sixty, going forth to battle.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— The sons of Reuven, and the Gadim, and half the tribe of Menashsheh, of valiant men, men able to bear buckler and sword, and to shoot with bow, and skilful in war, [were] four and forty thousand seven hundred and threescore, that went out to the war.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
The sons 1121
{1121} Prime
בֵּן
ben
{bane}
From H1129; a son (as a builder of the family name), in the widest sense (of literal and figurative relationship, including grandson, subject, nation, quality or condition, etc., (like H0001, H0251, etc.).
of Rvn רְאוּבֵן, 7205
{7205} Prime
רְאוּבֵן
R@'uwben
{reh-oo-bane'}
From the imperative of H7200 and H1121; see ye a son; Reuben, a son of Jacob.
and the Gm גָּדִים, 1425
{1425} Prime
גָּדִי
Gadiy
{gaw-dee'}
Patronymic from H1410; a Gadite (collectively) or descendant of Gad.
and half 2677
{2677} Prime
חֲצִי
chetsiy
{khay-tsee'}
From H2673; the half or middle.
the tribe 7626
{7626} Prime
שֵׁבֶט
shebet
{shay'-bet}
From an unused root probably meaning to branch off; a scion, that is, (literally) a stick (for punishing, writing, fighting, ruling, walking, etc.) or (figuratively) a clan.
of Mna מְנַשֶּׁה, 4519
{4519} Prime
מְנַשֶּׁה
M@nashsheh
{men-ash-sheh'}
From H5382; causing to forget; Menashsheh, a grandson of jacob, also the tribe descendant from him, and its territory.
of x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
valiant men, 2428
{2428} Prime
חַיִל
chayil
{khah'-yil}
From H2342; probably a force, whether of men, means or other resources; an army, wealth, virtue, valor, strength.
x1121
(1121) Complement
בֵּן
ben
{bane}
From H1129; a son (as a builder of the family name), in the widest sense (of literal and figurative relationship, including grandson, subject, nation, quality or condition, etc., (like H0001, H0251, etc.).
men y582
[0582] Standard
אֱנוֹשׁ
'enowsh
{en-oshe'}
From H0605; properly a mortal (and thus differeing from the more dignified H0120); hence a man in general (singly or collectively). It is often unexpressed in the English Version, especially when used in apposition with another word.
x376
(0376) Complement
אִישׁ
'iysh
{eesh}
Contracted for H0582 (or perhaps rather from an unused root meaning to be extant); a man as an individual or a male person; often used as an adjunct to a more definite term (and in such cases frequently not expressed in translation.).
able to bear 5375
{5375} Prime
נָשָׂא
nasa'
{naw-saw'}
A primitive root; to lift, in a great variety of applications, literally and figuratively, absolutely and relatively.
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
buckler 4043
{4043} Prime
מָגֵן
magen
{maw-gane'}
From H1598; a shield (that is, the small one or buckler); figuratively a protector; also the scaly hide of the crocodile.
and sword, 2719
{2719} Prime
חֶרֶב
chereb
{kheh'-reb}
From H2717; drought; also a cutting instrument (from its destructive effect), as a knife, sword, or other sharp implement.
and to shoot 1869
{1869} Prime
דָּרַךְ
darak
{daw-rak'}
A primitive root; to tread; by implication to walk; also to string a bow (by treading on it in bending).
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
with bow, 7198
{7198} Prime
קֶשֶׁת
qesheth
{keh'-sheth}
From H7185 in the original sense (of H6983) of bending; a bow, for shooting (hence figuratively strength) or the iris.
and skilful 3925
{3925} Prime
לָמַד
lamad
{law-mad'}
A primitive root; properly to goad, that is, (by implication) to teach (the rod being an Oriental incentive).
z8803
<8803> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Passive (See H8815)
Count - 1415
in war, 4421
{4421} Prime
מִלְחָמָה
milchamah
{mil-khaw-maw'}
From H3898 (in the sense of fighting); a battle (that is, the engagement); generally war (that is, warfare).
[were] four 702
{0702} Prime
אַרְבַּע
'arba`
{ar-bah'}
The second form is the masculine form; from H7251; four.
and forty 705
{0705} Prime
אַרְבָּעִים
'arba`iym
{ar-baw-eem'}
Multiple of H0702; forty.
thousand 505
{0505} Prime
אֶלֶף
'eleph
{eh'-lef}
Properly the same as H0504; hence (an ox's head being the first letter of the alphabet, and this eventually used as a numeral) a thousand.
seven 7651
{7651} Prime
שֶׁבַע
sheba`
{sheh'-bah}
From H7650; a primitive cardinal number; seven (as the sacred full one); also (adverbially) seven times; by implication a week; by extension an indefinite number.
hundred 3967
{3967} Prime
מֵאָה
me'ah
{may-aw'}
Probably a primitive numeral; a hundred; also as a multiplicative and a fraction.
and threescore, 8346
{8346} Prime
שִׁשִּׁים
shishshiym
{shish-sheem'}
Multiple of H8337; sixty.
that went out 3318
{3318} Prime
יָצָא
yatsa'
{yaw-tsaw'}
A primitive root; to go (causatively bring) out, in a great variety of applications, literally and figuratively, direct and proximate.
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
to the war. 6635
{6635} Prime
צָבָא
tsaba'
{tsaw-baw'}
From H6633; a mass of persons (or figurative things), especially regularly organized for war (an army); by implication a campaign, literally or figuratively (specifically hardship, worship).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

1 Chronicles 5:18-22

_ _ Hagarites — or, “Hagarenes,” originally synonymous with “Ishmaelites,” but afterwards applied to a particular tribe of the Arabs (compare Psalms 83:6).

_ _ Jetur — His descendants were called Itureans, and the country Auranitis, from Hauran, its chief city. These, who were skilled in archery, were invaded in the time of Joshua by a confederate army of the tribes of Reuben, Gad, and half Manasseh, who, probably incensed by the frequent raids of those marauding neighbors, took reprisals in men and cattle, dispossessed almost all of the original inhabitants, and colonized the district themselves. Divine Providence favored, in a remarkable manner, the Hebrew army in this just war.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

1 Chronicles 5:18-26

_ _ The heads of the half-tribe of Manasseh, that were seated on the other side Jordan, are named here, 1 Chronicles 5:23, 1 Chronicles 5:24. Their lot, at first, was Bashan only; but afterwards they increased so much in wealth and power that they spread far north, even unto Hermon. Two things only are here recorded concerning these tribes on the other side Jordan, in which they were all concerned. They all shared,

_ _ I. In a glorious victory over the Hagarites, so the Ishmaelites were now called, to remind them that they were the sons of the bond-woman, that was cast out. We are not told when this victory was obtained: whether it be the same with that of the Reubenites (which is said 1 Chronicles 5:10 to be in the days of Saul), or whether that success of one of these tribes animated and excited the other two to join with them in another expedition, is not certain. It seems, though in Saul's time the common interests of the kingdom were weak and low, some of the tribes that acted separately did well for themselves. We are here told,

_ _ 1. What a brave army these frontier-tribes brought into the field against the Hagarites, 44,000 men and upwards, all strong, and brave, and skilful in war, so many effective men, that knew how to manage their weapons, 1 Chronicles 5:18. How much more considerable might Israel have been than they were in the time of the judges if all the tribes had acted in conjunction!

_ _ 2. What course they took to engage God for them: They cried to God, and put their trust in him, 1 Chronicles 5:20. Now they acted as Israelites indeed. (1.) As the seed of believing Abraham, they put their trust in God. Though they had a powerful army, they relied not on that, but on the divine power. They depended on the commission they had from God to wage war with their neighbours for the enlarging of their coasts, if there was occasion, even with those that were very far off, besides the devoted nations. See Deuteronomy 20:15. They depended on God's providence to give them success. (2.) As the seed of praying Jacob, they cried unto God, especially in the battle, when perhaps, at first, they were in danger of being overpowered. See the like done, 2 Chronicles 13:14. In distress, God expects we should cry to him; he distrains upon us for this tribute, this rent. In our spiritual conflicts, we must look up to heaven for strength; and it is the believing prayer that will be the prevailing prayer.

_ _ 3. We are told what success they had: God was entreated of them, though need drove them to him; so ready is he to hear and answer prayer. They were helped against their enemies; for God never yet failed any that trusted in him. And then they routed the enemy's army, though far superior in number to theirs, slew many (1 Chronicles 5:22), took 100,000 prisoners, enriched themselves greatly with the spoil, and settled themselves in their country (1 Chronicles 5:21, 1 Chronicles 5:22), and all this because the war was of God, undertaken in his fear and carried on in a dependence upon him. If the battle be the Lord's, there is reason to hope it will be successful. Then we may expect to prosper in any enterprise, and then only, when we take God along with us.

_ _ II. They shared, at length, in an inglorious captivity. Had they kept close to God and their duty, they would have continued to enjoy both their ancient lot and their new conquests; but they transgressed against the God of their fathers, 1 Chronicles 5:25. They lay upon the borders, and conversed most with the neighbouring nations, by which means they learned their idolatrous usages and transmitted the infection to the other tribes; for this God had a controversy with them. He was a husband to them, and no marvel that his jealousy burnt like fire when they went a whoring after other gods. Justly is a bill of divorce given to the adulteress. God stirred up the spirit of the kings of Assyria, first one and then another, against them, served his own purposes by the designs of those ambitious monarchs, employed them to chastise these revolters first, and, when that humbled them not, then wholly to root them out, 1 Chronicles 5:26. These tribes were first placed, and they were first displaced. They would have the best land, not considering that it lay most exposed. But those who are governed more by sense than by reason or faith in their choices may expect to fare accordingly.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

[[no comment]]

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

[[no comment]]

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
Reuben:

1 Chronicles 12:37 And on the other side of Jordan, of the Reubenites, and the Gadites, and of the half tribe of Manasseh, with all manner of instruments of war for the battle, an hundred and twenty thousand.
Genesis 29:32 And Leah conceived, and bare a son, and she called his name Reuben: for she said, Surely the LORD hath looked upon my affliction; now therefore my husband will love me.
2 Kings 10:33 From Jordan eastward, all the land of Gilead, the Gadites, and the Reubenites, and the Manassites, from Aroer, which [is] by the river Arnon, even Gilead and Bashan.

Gadites:

Deuteronomy 3:12 And this land, [which] we possessed at that time, from Aroer, which [is] by the river Arnon, and half mount Gilead, and the cities thereof, gave I unto the Reubenites and to the Gadites.

Manasseh:

Genesis 41:51 And Joseph called the name of the firstborn Manasseh: For God, [said he], hath made me forget all my toil, and all my father's house.

valiant men:
Heb. sons of valour,
1 Samuel 18:17 And Saul said to David, Behold my elder daughter Merab, her will I give thee to wife: only be thou valiant for me, and fight the LORD'S battles. For Saul said, Let not mine hand be upon him, but let the hand of the Philistines be upon him.
*marg.
2 Samuel 2:7 Therefore now let your hands be strengthened, and be ye valiant: for your master Saul is dead, and also the house of Judah have anointed me king over them.
*marg.

to shoot:

1 Chronicles 8:40 And the sons of Ulam were mighty men of valour, archers, and had many sons, and sons' sons, an hundred and fifty. All these [are] of the sons of Benjamin.
2 Chronicles 14:8 And Asa had an army [of men] that bare targets and spears, out of Judah three hundred thousand; and out of Benjamin, that bare shields and drew bows, two hundred and fourscore thousand: all these [were] mighty men of valour.
Psalms 7:13 He hath also prepared for him the instruments of death; he ordaineth his arrows against the persecutors.

four and forty:

Joshua 4:12-13 And the children of Reuben, and the children of Gad, and half the tribe of Manasseh, passed over armed before the children of Israel, as Moses spake unto them: ... About forty thousand prepared for war passed over before the LORD unto battle, to the plains of Jericho.

that went:

Numbers 1:3 From twenty years old and upward, all that are able to go forth to war in Israel: thou and Aaron shall number them by their armies.
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Gn 29:32; 41:51. Nu 1:3. Dt 3:12. Jsh 4:12. 1S 18:17. 2S 2:7. 2K 10:33. 1Ch 8:40; 12:37. 2Ch 14:8. Ps 7:13.

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