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1 Chronicles 27:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Now the children of Israel after their number, [to wit], the heads of fathers' [houses] and the captains of thousands and of hundreds, and their officers that served the king, in any matter of the courses which came in and went out month by month throughout all the months of the year -- of every course were twenty and four thousand.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Now the children of Israel after their number, [to wit], the chief fathers and captains of thousands and hundreds, and their officers that served the king in any matter of the courses, which came in and went out month by month throughout all the months of the year, of every course [were] twenty and four thousand.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Now [this is] the enumeration of the sons of Israel, the heads of fathers’ [households], the commanders of thousands and of hundreds, and their officers who served the king in all the affairs of the divisions which came in and went out month by month throughout all the months of the year, each division [numbering] 24,000:
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Now the children of Israel after their number, [to wit], the chief fathers, and captains of thousands and hundreds, and their officers that served the king in any matter of the courses, which came in and went out month by month throughout all the months of the year, of every course [were] twenty and four thousand.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And [these] are the children of Israel after their number, the chief fathers and captains of thousands and hundreds, and their officers that served the king in every matter of the divisions, which came in and went out month by month throughout the months of the year; in every division were twenty-four thousand.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Now, the sons of Israel—as to the number of them, the ancestral chiefs—and rulers of thousands and hundreds, and their officers who waited upon the king as to any matter of the courses, who came in and went out month by month, for all the months of the year, in each course, were twenty-four thousand.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And the sons of Israel, after their number, heads of the fathers, and princes of the thousands and of the hundreds, and their officers, those serving the king in any matter of the courses, that are coming in and going out month by month, throughout all months of the year—[are] in each course twenty and four thousand.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Now the children of Israel according to their number, the heads of families, captains of thousands and of hundreds, and officers, that served the king according to their companies, who came in and went out every month in the year, under every chief were four and twenty thousand.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Nowe the children of Israel after their number, [to wit], the chiefe fathers and captaines of thousands and hundreds, and their officers that serued the king in any matter of the courses, which came in, and went out moneth by moneth, throughout all the moneths of the yeare, of euery course [were] twentie and foure thousand.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— Now the sons of Israel according to their number, heads of families, captains of thousands and captains of hundreds, and scribes ministering to the king, and for every affair of the king according to [their] divisions, [for] every ordinance of coming in and going out monthly, for all the months of the year, one division of them [was] twenty-four thousand.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Now the children of Yisrael after their number, [to wit], the chief fathers and captains of thousands and hundreds, and their officers that served the king in any matter of the courses, which came in and went out month by month throughout all the months of the year, of every course [were] twenty and four thousand.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Now the children 1121
{1121} Prime
בֵּן
ben
{bane}
From H1129; a son (as a builder of the family name), in the widest sense (of literal and figurative relationship, including grandson, subject, nation, quality or condition, etc., (like H0001, H0251, etc.).
of Yi$rl יִשׂרָאֵל 3478
{3478} Prime
יִשְׂרָאֵל
Yisra'el
{yis-raw-ale'}
From H8280 and H0410; he will rule as God; Jisrael, a symbolical name of Jacob; also (typically) of his posterity.
after their number, 4557
{4557} Prime
מִסְפָּר
micpar
{mis-pawr'}
From H5608; a number, definitely (arithmetical) or indefinitely (large, innumerable; small, a few); also (abstractly) narration.
[to wit], the chief 7218
{7218} Prime
רֹאשׁ
ro'sh
{roshe}
From an unused root apparently meaning to shake; the head (as most easily shaken), whether literally or figuratively (in many applications, of place, time, rank, etc.).
fathers 1
{0001} Prime
אָב
'ab
{awb}
A primitive word; father in a literal and immediate, or figurative and remote application.
and captains 8269
{8269} Prime
שַׂר
sar
{sar}
From H8323; a head person (of any rank or class).
of thousands 505
{0505} Prime
אֶלֶף
'eleph
{eh'-lef}
Properly the same as H0504; hence (an ox's head being the first letter of the alphabet, and this eventually used as a numeral) a thousand.
and hundreds, 3967
{3967} Prime
מֵאָה
me'ah
{may-aw'}
Probably a primitive numeral; a hundred; also as a multiplicative and a fraction.
and their officers 7860
{7860} Prime
שֹׁטֵר
shoter
{sho-tare'}
Active participle of an otherwise unused root probably meaning to write; properly a scribe, that is, (by analogy or implication) an official superintendent or magistrate.
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
that served 8334
{8334} Prime
שָׁרַת
sharath
{shaw-rath'}
A primitive root; to attend as a menial or worshipper; figuratively to contribute to.
z8764
<8764> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Participle (See H8813)
Count - 685
x853
(0853) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
the king 4428
{4428} Prime
מֶּלֶךְ
melek
{meh'-lek}
From H4427; a king.
in any x3605
(3605) Complement
כֹּל
kol
{kole}
From H3634; properly the whole; hence all, any or every (in the singular only, but often in a plural sense).
matter 1697
{1697} Prime
דָּבָר
dabar
{daw-baw'}
From H1696; a word; by implication a matter (as spoken of) or thing; adverbially a cause.
of the courses, 4256
{4256} Prime
מַחֲלְקָה
machaloqeth
{makh-al-o'-keth}
From H2505; a section (of Levites, people or soldiers).
which came in 935
{0935} Prime
בּוֹא
bow'
{bo}
A primitive root; to go or come (in a wide variety of applications).
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
and went out 3318
{3318} Prime
יָצָא
yatsa'
{yaw-tsaw'}
A primitive root; to go (causatively bring) out, in a great variety of applications, literally and figuratively, direct and proximate.
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
month y2320
[2320] Standard
חֹדֶשׁ
chodesh
{kho'-desh}
From H2318; the new moon; by implication a month.
by month 2320
{2320} Prime
חֹדֶשׁ
chodesh
{kho'-desh}
From H2318; the new moon; by implication a month.
throughout all x3605
(3605) Complement
כֹּל
kol
{kole}
From H3634; properly the whole; hence all, any or every (in the singular only, but often in a plural sense).
the months 2320
{2320} Prime
חֹדֶשׁ
chodesh
{kho'-desh}
From H2318; the new moon; by implication a month.
of the year, 8141
{8141} Prime
שָׁנֵה
shaneh
{shaw-neh'}
(The first form being in plural only, the second form being feminine); from H8138; a year (as a revolution of time).
of every 259
{0259} Prime
אֶחָד
'echad
{ekh-awd'}
A numeral from H0258; properly united, that is, one; or (as an ordinal) first.
course 4256
{4256} Prime
מַחֲלְקָה
machaloqeth
{makh-al-o'-keth}
From H2505; a section (of Levites, people or soldiers).
[were] twenty 6242
{6242} Prime
עֶשְׂרִים
`esriym
{es-reem'}
From H6235; twenty; also (ordinal) twentieth.
and four 702
{0702} Prime
אַרְבַּע
'arba`
{ar-bah'}
The second form is the masculine form; from H7251; four.
thousand. 505
{0505} Prime
אֶלֶף
'eleph
{eh'-lef}
Properly the same as H0504; hence (an ox's head being the first letter of the alphabet, and this eventually used as a numeral) a thousand.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

1 Chronicles 27:1

_ _ 1 Chronicles 27:1-15. Twelve captains for every month.

_ _ came in and went out month by month — Here is an account of the standing military force of Israel. A militia formed, it would seem, at the beginning of David’s reign (see 1 Chronicles 27:7) was raised in the following order: Twelve legions, corresponding to the number of tribes, were enlisted in the king’s service. Each legion comprised a body of twenty-four thousand men, whose term of service was a month in rotation, and who were stationed either at Jerusalem or in any other place where they might be required. There was thus always a force sufficient for the ordinary purposes of state, as well as for resisting sudden attacks or popular tumults; and when extraordinary emergencies demanded a larger force, the whole standing army could easily be called to arms, amounting to two hundred eighty-eight thousand, or to three hundred thousand, including the twelve thousand officers that naturally attended on the twelve princes (1 Chronicles 27:16-24). Such a military establishment would be burdensome neither to the country nor to the royal treasury; for attendance on this duty being a mark of honor and distinction, the expense of maintenance would be borne probably by the militiaman himself, or furnished out of the common fund of his tribe. Nor would the brief period of actual service produce any derangement of the usual course of affairs; for, on the expiry of the term, every soldier returned to the pursuits and duties of private life during the other eleven months of the year. Whether the same individuals were always enrolled, cannot be determined. The probability is, that provided the requisite number was furnished, no stricter scrutiny would be made. A change of men might, to a certain degree, be encouraged, as it was a part of David’s policy to train all his subjects to skill in arms; and to have made the enlistment fall always on the same individuals would have defeated that purpose. To have confined each month’s levy rigidly within the limits of one tribe might have fallen hard upon those tribes which were weak and small. The rotation system being established, each division knew its own month, as well as the name of the commander under whom it was to serve. These commanders are styled, “the chief fathers,” that is, the hereditary heads of tribes who, like chieftains of clans, possessed great power and influence.

_ _ captains of thousands and hundreds — The legions of twenty-four thousand were divided into regiments of one thousand, and these again into companies of a hundred men, under the direction of their respective subalterns, there being, of course, twenty-four captains of thousands, and two hundred forty centurions.

_ _ and their officers — the Shoterim, who in the army performed the duty of the commissariat, keeping the muster-roll, etc.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

1 Chronicles 27:1-15

_ _ We have here an account of the regulation of the militia of the kingdom. David was himself a man of war, and had done great things with the sword; he had brought into the field great armies. Now here we are told how he marshalled them when God had given him rest from all his enemies. He did not keep them all together, for that would have been a hardship on them and the country; yet he did not disband and disperse them all, for then he would have left his kingdom naked, and his people would have forgotten the arts of war, wherein they had been instructed. He therefore contrived to keep up a constant force, and yet not a standing army. The model is very prudent. 1. He kept up 24,000 constantly in arms, I suppose in a body, and disciplined, in one part or other of the kingdom, the freeholders carrying their own arms and bearing their own charges while they were up. This was a sufficient strength for the securing of the public peace and safety. Those that are Israelites indeed must learn war; for we have enemies to grapple with, whom we are concerned constantly to stand upon our guard against. 2. He changed them every month; so that the whole number of the militia amounted to 288,000, perhaps about a fifth part of the able men of the kingdom. By being thus distributed into twelve courses, they were all instructed in, and accustomed to, military exercises; and yet none were compelled to be in service, and at expenses, above one month in the year (which they might very well afford), unless upon extraordinary occasions, and then they might all be got together quickly. It is the wisdom of governors, and much their praise, while they provide for the public safety, to contrive how to make it effectual and yet easy, and as little as possible burdensome to the people. 3. Every course had a commander in chief over it. Besides the subaltern officers that were rulers over thousands, and hundreds, and fifties, there was one general officer to each course or legion. All these twelve great commanders are mentioned among David's worthies and champions, 2 Sa. 23 and 1 Chr. 11. They had first signalized themselves by their great actions and then they were advanced to those great preferments. It is well with a kingdom when honour thus attends merit. Benaiah is here called a chief priest, 1 Chronicles 27:5. But, cohen signifying both a priest and a prince, it might better be translated here a chief ruler, or (as in the margin) a principal officer. Dodai had Mikloth (1 Chronicles 27:4) either for his substitute when he was absent or infirm, or for his successor when he was dead. Benaiah had his son under him, 1 Chronicles 27:6. Asahel had his son after him (1 Chronicles 27:7), and by this it seems that this plan of the militia was laid in the beginning of David's reign; for Asahel was killed by Abner while David reigned in Hebron. When his wars were over he revived this method, and left the military affairs in this posture, for the peaceable reign of his son Solomon. When we think ourselves most safe, yet, while we are here in the body, we must keep in a readiness for spiritual conflicts. Let not him that girdeth on the harness boast as he that puts it off.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

1 Chronicles 27:1

Officers — The standing militia of Israel as it was settled under their several officers. Of courses — In all the business wherein the king had occasion for these persons who were to attend him by turns. Came in, &c. — who being armed and mustered, and to wait upon the king, at Jerusalem or other places, as the king should see fit. By this order near three hundred thousand of his people were instructed and exercised in the use of their arms, and fitted for the defence of their king and kingdom when it should be needful, and in the mean time sufficient provision was made against any sudden tumults or irruptions of enemies. And this monthly course was contrived that the burden of it might be easy and equally distributed among the people.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

1 Chronicles 27:1

Now the children of Israel after their number, [to wit], the chief fathers and captains of thousands and hundreds, and their officers that served the king in any matter of the courses, (a) which came in and went out month by month throughout all the months of the year, of every course [were] twenty and four thousand.

(a) Who executed their charge and office, which is meant by coming in and going out.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
the chief fathers:
The patriarchs, chief generals, or generals of brigade. This enumeration is widely different from that of the preceding. In that, we have the order and course of the priests and Levites, in their ecclesiastical ministrations. In this, we have the account of the order of the civil service, what related simply to the political state of the king and kingdom. Twenty-four persons, chosen out of David's worthies, each of whom had a second, were placed over 24,000 men, who all served a month at a time, in turn; and this was the whole of their service during the year, after which they attended to their own affairs. Thus the king had always on foot a regular force of 24,000, who served without expense to him or the state, and were not oppressed by the service, which took up only a twelfth part of their time; and by this plan he could, at any time, bring into the field 12 times 24,000 or 288,000 fighting men, independently of the 12,000 officers, which made in the whole an effective force of 300,000 soldiers; and all these men were prepared, disciplined, and ready at a call, without the smallest expense to the state or the king. These were, properly speaking, the militia of the Israelitish kingdom.

captains:

1 Chronicles 13:1 And David consulted with the captains of thousands and hundreds, [and] with every leader.
Exodus 18:25 And Moses chose able men out of all Israel, and made them heads over the people, rulers of thousands, rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens.
Deuteronomy 1:15 So I took the chief of your tribes, wise men, and known, and made them heads over you, captains over thousands, and captains over hundreds, and captains over fifties, and captains over tens, and officers among your tribes.
1 Samuel 8:12 And he will appoint him captains over thousands, and captains over fifties; and [will set them] to ear his ground, and to reap his harvest, and to make his instruments of war, and instruments of his chariots.
Micah 5:2 But thou, Bethlehem Ephratah, [though] thou be little among the thousands of Judah, [yet] out of thee shall he come forth unto me [that is] to be ruler in Israel; whose goings forth [have been] from of old, from everlasting.

served:

1 Chronicles 28:1 And David assembled all the princes of Israel, the princes of the tribes, and the captains of the companies that ministered to the king by course, and the captains over the thousands, and captains over the hundreds, and the stewards over all the substance and possession of the king, and of his sons, with the officers, and with the mighty men, and with all the valiant men, unto Jerusalem.
2 Chronicles 17:12-19 And Jehoshaphat waxed great exceedingly; and he built in Judah castles, and cities of store. ... These waited on the king, beside [those] whom the king put in the fenced cities throughout all Judah.
2 Chronicles 26:11-13 Moreover Uzziah had an host of fighting men, that went out to war by bands, according to the number of their account by the hand of Jeiel the scribe and Maaseiah the ruler, under the hand of Hananiah, [one] of the king's captains. ... And under their hand [was] an army, three hundred thousand and seven thousand and five hundred, that made war with mighty power, to help the king against the enemy.

any matter:

1 Kings 5:14 And he sent them to Lebanon, ten thousand a month by courses: a month they were in Lebanon, [and] two months at home: and Adoniram [was] over the levy.

month:

1 Kings 4:7 And Solomon had twelve officers over all Israel, which provided victuals for the king and his household: each man his month in a year made provision.
1 Kings 4:27 And those officers provided victual for king Solomon, and for all that came unto king Solomon's table, every man in his month: they lacked nothing.
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Ex 18:25. Dt 1:15. 1S 8:12. 1K 4:7, 27; 5:14. 1Ch 13:1; 28:1. 2Ch 17:12; 26:11. Mi 5:2.

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