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1 Chronicles 12:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Now these are they that came to David to Ziklag, while he yet kept himself close because of Saul the son of Kish; and they were among the mighty men, his helpers in war.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Now these [are] they that came to David to Ziklag, while he yet kept himself close because of Saul the son of Kish: and they [were] among the mighty men, helpers of the war.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Now these are the ones who came to David at Ziklag, while he was still restricted because of Saul the son of Kish; and they were among the mighty men who helped [him] in war.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Now these [are] they that came to David to Ziklag, while he yet kept himself close because of Saul the son of Kish: and they [were] among the mighty men, helpers of the war.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— Now these are they that came to David to Ziklag, while he kept still close because of Saul the son of Kish; and they were among the mighty men who helped him in the conflict;
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Now these, are they who came unto David, to Ziklag, he yet being shut up, because of Saul son of Kish,—and, they, were among the heroes, helpers in the war;
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And these [are] those coming in unto David to Ziklag, while shut up because of Saul son of Kish, and they [are] among the mighty ones, helping the battle,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Now these are they that came to David to Siceleg, while he yet fled from Saul the son of Cis, and they were most valiant and excellent warriors,
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Now these [are they] that came to Dauid to Ziklag while hee yet kept himselfe close, because of Saul the sonne of Kish: and they [were] among the mighty men, helpers of the warre.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And these [are] they that came to Sikelag, when he yet kept himself close because of Saul the son of Kish{gr.Kis}; and these [were] among the mighty, aiding [him] in war,
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Now these [are] they that came to Dawid to Tziqlag, while he yet kept himself close because of Shaul the son of Qish: and they [were] among the mighty men, helpers of the war.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Now these x428
(0428) Complement
Prolonged from H0411; these or those.
[are] they that came 935
{0935} Prime
A primitive root; to go or come (in a wide variety of applications).
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
to x413
(0413) Complement
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
Dwi דָּוִד 1732
{1732} Prime
From the same as H1730; loving; David, the youngest son of Jesse.
to Xklaq צִיקלַג, 6860
{6860} Prime
Of uncertain derivation; Tsiklag or Tsikelag, a place in Palestine.
while he yet x5750
(5750) Complement
From H5749; properly iteration or continuance; used only adverbially (with or without preposition), again, repeatedly, still, more.
kept himself close 6113
{6113} Prime
A primitive root; to inclose; by analogy to hold back; also to maintain, rule, assemble.
<8803> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Passive (See H8815)
Count - 1415
because 6440
{6440} Prime
Plural (but always used as a singular) of an unused noun (פָּנֶה paneh, {paw-neh'}; from H6437); the face (as the part that turns); used in a great variety of applications (literally and figuratively); also (with prepositional prefix) as a preposition (before, etc.).
(4480) Complement
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
of l שָׁאוּל 7586
{7586} Prime
Passive participle of H7592; asked; Shaul, the name of an Edomite and two Israelites.
the son 1121
{1121} Prime
From H1129; a son (as a builder of the family name), in the widest sense (of literal and figurative relationship, including grandson, subject, nation, quality or condition, etc., (like H0001, H0251, etc.).
of K קִישׁ: 7027
{7027} Prime
From H6983; a bow; Kish, the name of five Israelites.
and they x1992
(1992) Complement
Masculine plural from H1931; they (only used when emphatic).
[were] among the mighty men, 1368
{1368} Prime
Intensive from the same as H1397; powerful; by implication warrior, tyrant.
helpers 5826
{5826} Prime
A primitive root; to surround, that is, protect or aid.
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
of the war. 4421
{4421} Prime
From H3898 (in the sense of fighting); a battle (that is, the engagement); generally war (that is, warfare).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

1 Chronicles 12:1-7

_ _ 1 Chronicles 12:1-22. The companies that came to David at Ziklag.

_ _ Now these are they that came to David to Ziklag — There are three lists given in this chapter, arranged, apparently, according to the order of time when the parties joined the standard of David.

_ _ while he yet kept himself close because of Saul — that is, when the king’s jealousy had driven him into exile from the court and the country.

_ _ Ziklag — (See on 1 Samuel 27:6). It was during his retirement in that Philistine town that he was joined in rapid succession by the heroes who afterwards contributed so much to the glory of his reign.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

1 Chronicles 12:1-22

_ _ We have here an account of those that appeared and acted as David's friends, upon the death of Saul, to bring about the revolution. All the forces he had, while he was persecuted, was but 600 men, who served for his guards; but, when the time had come that he must begin to act offensively, Providence brought in more to his assistance. Even while he kept himself close, because of Saul (1 Chronicles 12:1), while he did not appear, to invite or encourage his friends and well-wishers to come in to him (not foreseeing that the death of Saul was so near), God was inclining and preparing them to come over to him with seasonable succours. Those that trust God to do his work for them in his own way and time shall find his providence outdoing all their forecast and contrivance. The war was God's, and he found out helpers of the war, whose forwardness to act for the man God designed for the government is here recorded to their honour.

_ _ I. Some, even of Saul's brethren, of the tribe of Benjamin, and a-kin to him, came over to David, 1 Chronicles 12:2. What moved them to it we are not told. Probably a generous indignation at the base treatment which Saul, one of their tribe, gave him, animated them to appear the more vigorously for him, that the guilt and reproach of it might not lie upon them. These Benjamites are described to be men of great dexterity, that were trained up in shooting and slinging, and used both hands alike — ingenious active men; a few of these might do David a great deal of service. Several of the leading men of them are here named. See Judges 20:16.

_ _ II. Some of the tribe of Gad, though seated on the other side Jordan, had such a conviction of David's title to the government, and fitness for it, that they separated themselves from their brethren (a laudable separation it was) to go to David, though he was in the hold in the wilderness (1 Chronicles 12:8), probably some of his strong holds in the wilderness of Engedi. They were but few, eleven in all, here named, but they added much to David's strength. Those that had hitherto come in to his assistance were most of them men of broken fortunes, distressed, discontented, and soldiers of fortune, that came to him rather for protection than to do him any service, 1 Samuel 22:2. But these Gadites were brave men, men of war, and fit for the battle, 1 Chronicles 12:8. For, 1. They were able-bodied men, men of incredible swiftness, not to fly from, but to fly upon, the enemy, and to pursue the scattered forces. In this they were as swift as the roes upon the mountains, so that no man could escape from them; and yet they had faces like the faces of lions, so that no man could out-fight them. 2. They were disciplined men, trained up to military exercises; they could handle shield and buckler, use both offensive and defensive weapons. 3. They were officers of the militia in their own tribe (1 Chronicles 12:14), so that though they did not bring soldiers with them they had them at command, hundreds, thousands. 4. They were daring men, that could break through the greatest difficulties. Upon some expedition or other, perhaps this to David, they swam over the Jordan, when it overflowed all its banks, 1 Chronicles 12:15. Those are fit to be employed in the cause of God that can venture thus in a dependence upon the divine protection. 5. They were men that would go through with the business they engaged in. What enemies those were that they met with in the valleys, when they had passed Jordan, does not appear; but they put them to flight with their lion-like faces, and pursued them with matchless fury, both towards the east and towards the west; which way soever they turned, they followed their blow, and did not do their work by halves.

_ _ III. Some of Judah and Benjamin came to him, 1 Chronicles 12:16. Their leader was Amasai, whether the same with that Amasa that afterwards sided with Absalom (2 Samuel 17:25) or no does not appear. Now here we have,

_ _ 1. David's prudent treaty with them, 1 Chronicles 12:17. He was surprised to see them, and could not but conceive some jealousy of the intentions of their coming, having been so often in danger by the treachery of the men of Ziph and the men of Keilah, who yet were all men of Judah. He might well be timorous whose life was so much struck at; he might well be suspicious who had been deceived in so many that he said, in his haste, All men are liars. No marvel that he meets these men of Judah with caution. Observe,

_ _ (1.) How he puts the matter to themselves, how fairly he deals with them. As they are, they shall find him; so shall all that deal with the Son of David. [1.] If they be faithful and honourable, he will be their rewarder: “If you have come peaceably unto me, to help me, though you have come late and have left me exposed a great while, though you bring no great strength with you to turn the scale for me, yet I will thankfully accept your good-will, and my heart shall be knit unto you; I will love you and honour you, and do you all the kindness I can.” Affection, respect, and service, that are cordial and sincere, will find favour with a good man, as they do with a good God, though clogged with infirmities, and turning to no great account. But, [2.] If they be false, and come to betray him into the hands of Saul, under colour of friendship, he leaves them to God to be their avenger, as he is, and will be, of every thing that is treacherous and perfidious. Never was man more violently run upon, and run down, than David was (except the Son of David himself), and yet he had the testimony of his conscience that there was no wrong in his hands. He meant no harm to any man, which was his rejoicing in the day of evil, and enabled him, when he feared treachery, to commit his cause to him that judges righteously. He will not be judge in his own cause, though a wise man, nor avenge himself, though a man of valour; but let the righteous God, who hath said, Vengeance is mine, do both. The God of our fathers look thereon and rebuke it.

_ _ (2.) In this appeal observe, [1.] He calls God the God of our fathers, both his fathers and theirs. Thus he reminded them not to deal ill with him; for they were both descendants from the same patriarchs, and both dependents on the same God. Thus he encouraged himself to believe that God would right him if he should be abused; for he was the God of his fathers and therefore a blessing was entailed on him, and a God to all Israel and therefore not only a Judge to all the earth, but particularly concerned in determining controversies between contesting Israelites. [2.] He does not imprecate any fearful judgement upon them, though they should deal treacherously, but very modestly refers his cause to the divine wisdom and justice: The Lord look thereon, and judge as he sees (for he sees men's hearts), and rebuke it. It becomes those that appeal to God to express themselves with great temper and moderation; for the wrath of man works not the righteousness of God.

_ _ 2. Their hearty closure with him, 1 Chronicles 12:18. Amasai was their spokesman, on whom the Spirit of the Lord came, not a spirit of prophecy, but a spirit of wisdom and resolution, according to the occasion, putting words into his mouth, unpremeditated, which were proper both to give David satisfaction and to animate those that accompanied him. Nothing could be said finer, more lively, or more pertinent to the occasion. For himself and all his associates, (1.) He professed a very cordial adherence to David, and his interest, against all that opposed him, and a resolution to stand by him with the hazard of all that was dear to him: Thine are we, David, and on thy side, thou son of Jesse. In calling him son of Jesse they reminded themselves that he was lineally descended from Nahshon and Salmon, who in their days were princes of the tribe of Judah. Saul called him so in disdain (1 Samuel 20:27; 1 Samuel 22:7), but they looked upon it as his honour. They were convinced that God was on his side; and therefore, Thine are we, David, and on thy side. It is good, if we must side, to side with those that side with God and have God with them. (2.) He wished prosperity to David and his cause, not drinking a health, but praying for peace to him and all his friends and well-wishers: “Peace, peace, be unto thee, all the good thy heart desires, and peace be to thy helpers, among whom we desire to be reckoned, that peace may be on us.” (3.) He assured him of help from heaven: “For thy God helpeth thee; therefore we wish peace may be, and therefore we doubt not but peace shall be, to thee and thy helpers. God is thy God, and those that have him for their God no doubt have him for their helper in every time of need and danger.” From these expressions of Amasai we may take instruction how to testify our affection and allegiance to the Lord Jesus. His we must be without reservation or power of revocation. On his side we must be forward to appear and act. To his interest we must be hearty well-wishers: “Hosanna! prosperity to his gospel and kingdom;” for his God helpeth him, and will till he shall have put down all opposing rule, principality, and power.

_ _ 3. David's cheerful acceptance of them into his interest and friendship. Charity and honour teach us to let fall our jealousies as soon as satisfaction is given us: David received them, and preferred them to be captains of the band.

_ _ IV. Some of Manasseh likewise joined with him, v. 19. Providence gave them a fair opportunity to do so when he and his men marched through their country upon this occasion. Achish took David with him when he went out to fight with Saul; but the lords of the Philistines obliged him to withdraw. We have the story, 1 Samuel 29:4, etc. In his return some great men of Manasseh, who had no heart to join with Saul against the Philistines struck in with David, and very seasonably, to help him against the band of Amelekites who plundered Ziklag; they were not many, but they were all mighty men and did David good service upon that occasion, 1 Sa. 30. See how Providence provides. David's interest grew strangely just when he had occasion to make use of it, 1 Chronicles 12:22. Auxiliary forces flocked in daily, till he had a great host. When the promise comes to the birth, leave it to God to find strength to bring forth.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

[[no comment]]

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

1 Chronicles 12:1

Now these [are] they that came to David to (a) Ziklag, while he yet kept himself close because of Saul the son of Kish: and they [were] among the mighty men, helpers of the war.

(a) To take his part against Saul: who persecuted him.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
these are:

1 Samuel 27:2 And David arose, and he passed over with the six hundred men that [were] with him unto Achish, the son of Maoch, king of Gath.
1 Samuel 27:6 Then Achish gave him Ziklag that day: wherefore Ziklag pertaineth unto the kings of Judah unto this day.
2 Samuel 1:1 Now it came to pass after the death of Saul, when David was returned from the slaughter of the Amalekites, and David had abode two days in Ziklag;
2 Samuel 4:10 When one told me, saying, Behold, Saul is dead, thinking to have brought good tidings, I took hold of him, and slew him in Ziklag, who [thought] that I would have given him a reward for his tidings:

while he yet:
etc. Heb. being yet shut up, Sometimes, in the East, when a successful prince endeavoured to extirpate the preceding royal family, some of them escaped the slaughter, and secured themselves in an impregnable fortress, or in a place of great secrecy; while others have been known to seek an asylum in a foreign county, from when they have occasioned, from time to time, great anxiety and great difficulties to the usurper of the crown. The expression shut up, so often applied to the extermination of eastern royal families (
Deuteronomy 32:32 For their vine [is] of the vine of Sodom, and of the fields of Gomorrah: their grapes [are] grapes of gall, their clusters [are] bitter:
1 Kings 14:10 Therefore, behold, I will bring evil upon the house of Jeroboam, and will cut off from Jeroboam him that pisseth against the wall, [and] him that is shut up and left in Israel, and will take away the remnant of the house of Jeroboam, as a man taketh away dung, till it be all gone.
1 Kings 21:21 Behold, I will bring evil upon thee, and will take away thy posterity, and will cut off from Ahab him that pisseth against the wall, and him that is shut up and left in Israel,
2 Kings 9:8 For the whole house of Ahab shall perish: and I will cut off from Ahab him that pisseth against the wall, and him that is shut up and left in Israel:
2 Kings 14:26 For the LORD saw the affliction of Israel, [that it was] very bitter: for [there was] not any shut up, nor any left, nor any helper for Israel.
), strictly speaking, refers to the two first of these cases; but the term may be used in a more extensive sense, for those who, by retiring into deserts, or foreign countries, preserve themselves from being slain by the men who usurp the dominions of their ancestors. Thus the term is here applied to David, though he did not shut himself up, strictly speaking, in Ziklag. It is described as a town in the country, and was probably an unwalled town; and it is certain that he did not confine himself to it, but, on the contrary, was continually making excursions from thence.


1 Chronicles 8:33 And Ner begat Kish, and Kish begat Saul, and Saul begat Jonathan, and Malchishua, and Abinadab, and Eshbaal.
1 Chronicles 9:39 And Ner begat Kish; and Kish begat Saul; and Saul begat Jonathan, and Malchishua, and Abinadab, and Eshbaal.

the mighty:

1 Chronicles 11:10 These also [are] the chief of the mighty men whom David had, who strengthened themselves with him in his kingdom, [and] with all Israel, to make him king, according to the word of the LORD concerning Israel.
1 Chronicles 11:19 And said, My God forbid it me, that I should do this thing: shall I drink the blood of these men that have put their lives in jeopardy? for with [the jeopardy of] their lives they brought it. Therefore he would not drink it. These things did these three mightiest.
1 Chronicles 11:24-25 These [things] did Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, and had the name among the three mighties. ... Behold, he was honourable among the thirty, but attained not to the [first] three: and David set him over his guard.
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Dt 32:32. 1S 27:2, 6. 2S 1:1; 4:10. 1K 14:10; 21:21. 2K 9:8; 14:26. 1Ch 8:33; 9:39; 11:10, 19, 24.

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