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1 Chronicles 11:15 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And three of the thirty chief men went down to the rock to David, into the cave of Adullam; and the host of the Philistines were encamped in the valley of Rephaim.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Now three of the thirty captains went down to the rock to David, into the cave of Adullam; and the host of the Philistines encamped in the valley of Rephaim.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Now three of the thirty chief men went down to the rock to David, into the cave of Adullam, while the army of the Philistines was camping in the valley of Rephaim.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Now three of the thirty captains went down to the rock to David, into the cave of Adullam; and the host of the Philistines encamped in the valley of Rephaim.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And three of the thirty chiefs went down to the rock to David, to the cave of Adullam, when the army of the Philistines was encamped in the valley of Rephaim.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And three of the thirty chiefs went down upon the rock, unto David, into the cave of Adullam,—a host of Philistines, being encamped in the vale of Rephaim.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And three of the thirty heads go down on the rock unto David, unto the cave of Adullam, and the host of the Philistines is encamping in the valley of Rephaim,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And three of the thirty captains went down to the rock, wherein David was, to the cave of Odollam, when the Philistines encamped in the valley of Raphaim.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Now three of the thirtie captaines, went downe to the rocke of Dauid, into the caue of Adullam, and the host of the Philistines encamped in the valley of Rephaim.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And three of the thirty chiefs went down to the rock to David, to the cave of Adullam{gr.Odollam}, and the camp of the Philistines [was] in the giants' valley.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Now three of the thirty captains went down to the rock to Dawid, into the cave of Adullam; and the host of the Pelishtim encamped in the valley of Refaim.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Now three 7969
{7969} Prime
שָׁלוֹשׁ
shalowsh
{shaw-loshe'}
The last two forms being masculine; a primitive number; three; occasionally (ordinal) third, or (multiplicative) thrice.
of x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
the thirty 7970
{7970} Prime
שְׁלוֹשִׁים
sh@lowshiym
{shel-o-sheem'}
Multiple of H7969; thirty; or (ordinal) thirtieth.
captains 7218
{7218} Prime
רֹאשׁ
ro'sh
{roshe}
From an unused root apparently meaning to shake; the head (as most easily shaken), whether literally or figuratively (in many applications, of place, time, rank, etc.).
went down 3381
{3381} Prime
יָרַד
yarad
{yaw-rad'}
A primitive root; to descend (literally to go downwards; or conventionally to a lower region, as the shore, a boundary, the enemy, etc.; or figuratively to fall); causatively to bring down (in all the above applications).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
to x5921
(5921) Complement
עַל
`al
{al}
Properly the same as H5920 used as a preposition (in the singular or plural, often with prefix, or as conjugation with a particle following); above, over, upon, or against (yet always in this last relation with a downward aspect) in a great variety of applications.
the rock 6697
{6697} Prime
צוּר
tsuwr
{tsoor}
From H6696; properly a cliff (or sharp rock, as compressed); generally a rock or boulder; figuratively a refuge; also an edge (as precipitous).
to x413
(0413) Complement
אֵל
'el
{ale}
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
Dwi דָּוִד, 1732
{1732} Prime
דָּוִד
David
{daw-veed'}
From the same as H1730; loving; David, the youngest son of Jesse.
into x413
(0413) Complement
אֵל
'el
{ale}
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
the cave 4631
{4631} Prime
מְעָרָה
m@`arah
{meh-aw-raw'}
From H5783; a cavern (as dark).
of `ullm עֲדֻלָּם; 5725
{5725} Prime
עֲדֻלָּם
`Adullam
{ad-ool-lawm'}
Probably from the passive participle of the same as H5724; Adullam, a place in Palestine.
and the host 4264
{4264} Prime
מַחֲנֶה
machaneh
{makh-an-eh'}
From H2583; an encampment (of travellers or troops); hence an army, whether literally (of soldiers) or figuratively (of dancers, angels, cattle, locusts, stars; or even the sacred courts).
of the Plitm פְּלִשׁתִּים 6430
{6430} Prime
פְּלִשְׁתִּי
P@lishtiy
{pel-ish-tee'}
Patrial from H6429; a Pelishtite or inhabitant of Pelesheth.
encamped 2583
{2583} Prime
חָנָה
chanah
{khaw-naw'}
A primitive root (compare H2603); properly to incline; by implication to decline (of the slanting rays of evening); specifically to pitch a tent; generally to encamp (for abode or siege).
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
in the valley 6010
{6010} Prime
עֵמֶק
`emeq
{ay'-mek}
From H6009; a vale (that is, broad depression).
of Rfm רְפָאִים. 7497
{7497} Prime
רָפָא
rapha'
{raw-faw'}
From H7495 in the sense of invigorating; a giant.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

1 Chronicles 11:15-19

_ _ David longed, and said, Oh that one would give me drink ... of the well of Beth-lehem — (See on 2 Samuel 23:15). This chivalrous act evinces the enthusiastic devotion of David’s men, that they were ready to gratify his smallest wish at the risk of their lives. It is probable that, when uttering the wish, David had no recollection of the military posted at Beth-lehem. It is generally taken for granted that those who fought a way to the well of Beth-lehem were the three champions just mentioned [see on 1 Chronicles 11:13]. But this is far from being clear. On the contrary, it would seem that three different heroes are referred to, for Abishai (1 Chronicles 11:20) was one of them. The camp of the Philistines was in the valley of Rephaim (1 Chronicles 11:15), which lay on the west of Jerusalem, but an outpost was stationed at Beth-lehem (1 Chronicles 11:16), and through this garrison they had to force a passage.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on 1 Chronicles 11:10-47.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

[[no comment]]

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

1 Chronicles 11:15

Now three of the (d) thirty captains went down to the rock to David, into the cave of Adullam; and the host of the Philistines encamped in the valley of Rephaim.

(d) That is, Eleazar and his two companions.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
of the thirty captains:
or, captains over the thirty,
2 Samuel 23:13-39 And three of the thirty chief went down, and came to David in the harvest time unto the cave of Adullam: and the troop of the Philistines pitched in the valley of Rephaim. ... Uriah the Hittite: thirty and seven in all.

the cave:

Joshua 12:15 The king of Libnah, one; the king of Adullam, one;
1 Samuel 22:1 David therefore departed thence, and escaped to the cave Adullam: and when his brethren and all his father's house heard [it], they went down thither to him.
Micah 1:15 Yet will I bring an heir unto thee, O inhabitant of Mareshah: he shall come unto Adullam the glory of Israel.

in the:

1 Chronicles 14:9 And the Philistines came and spread themselves in the valley of Rephaim.
2 Samuel 5:18 The Philistines also came and spread themselves in the valley of Rephaim.
2 Samuel 5:22 And the Philistines came up yet again, and spread themselves in the valley of Rephaim.
Isaiah 17:5 And it shall be as when the harvestman gathereth the corn, and reapeth the ears with his arm; and it shall be as he that gathereth ears in the valley of Rephaim.

Rephaim:

Joshua 15:8 And the border went up by the valley of the son of Hinnom unto the south side of the Jebusite; the same [is] Jerusalem: and the border went up to the top of the mountain that [lieth] before the valley of Hinnom westward, which [is] at the end of the valley of the giants northward:
, the giants
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Jsh 12:15; 15:8. 1S 22:1. 2S 5:18, 22; 23:13. 1Ch 14:9. Is 17:5. Mi 1:15.

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